Ogam Script


Basque, West Virginia 8th Century, Ireland, Scotland, Mayan, Cuban Indians


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(This is where the examiners abilities to figure this mystery out take on an almost comical note - to me at least.) Dr. Barry Fell, of the Epigraphic Society felt that the bricks were part of some type of language school at Comalcalco, where students used the bricks to write on. (Because using bricks to write on is so practical? WHAT?) The inscriptions weren't visible until after they had dismantled the structure. Steele made the observation that the problem with the dating is that the languages on the bricks go back to 0 A.D. to 400 A.D., while Colmalcalco is believed to have been built and/or inhabited between A.D. 700 to 900. Steele believes that the bricks may have been part of a more ancient structure that was dismantled and the bricks used in the newer building. (Okay, this is a little more reasonable - LOL - although it still doesn't explain the other languages.) He also notes that since they have only looked at 1/2 of 1% of the total amount of bricks, there could be a million inscribed bricks to discover. He also goes on to say that the linguists are all in agreement with the languages on the bricks, but mainstream archeology refuses to accept it, simply stating that it "just can't be correct." (This is where they usually lose it - by trying to fit the new information into the old framework instead of including the new information into a NEW framework - wouldn't it just be better to say that they just don't KNOW? Or are they afraid of admitting that some of their past assumptions might be incorrect? Hell - they're ALL incorrect at one point or another - just depends on your perspective at the time - oh well. It was an interesting article anyway.)


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The Council for West Virginia Archaeology reproduces these original ogham (ogam) petroglyph articles for the record only. We give absolutely no credence to their conclusions.
For articles discussing these claims, see the listing at the end of this page.

Part 3


By Barry Fell

� 1983 WV Division of Natural Resources, used with permission


Editor's Note [Wonderful West Virginia's editor]:
In the following article, America's leading expert on ancient languages details his decipherments of two southern West Virginia petroglyphs, one in Wyoming County, the other in Boone County. Because of the innovative and controversial nature of this material, we have chosen to publish Barry Fell's step-by-step description of his decipherment process, in full, for credibility and so that readers may understand how these translations were made.

The decipherment process is complex and technical in nature, therefore, it is impossible to present it in on easy-to-read style. Readers willing to expend the time and mental energy required to study the material will be astounded and intrigued, as the author takes them through the systematic process which led to his startling translations of mysterious writings etched centuries ago by an unknown person on West Virginia s ancient rock cliffs.

Additional archaeological evidence in the same vein as that presented here has been discovered recently in West Virginia, which seems to further substantiate Fell's decipherments. It is currently being analyzed. When studies are complete, details of these additional findings will appear in future issues of this magazine.

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The rock-cut inscriptions which are the subject of this article are located at archaeological sites in Wyoming and Boone Counties, West Virginia. They appear to date from the 6th—8th centuries A.D., and they are written in Old Irish language, employing an alphabet called Ogam, found also on ancient rock-cut inscriptions in Ireland. The inscriptions are accompanied by short annotations in ancient Libyan alphabetic script. The Libyan script is used to render two languages in the annotations (1) the ancient Libyan tongue itself, and (2) an Algonquian dialect of the northeastern group, perhaps allied to Shawnee. In this first report I deal only with the Old Irish texts, as these are the most detailed.

The Ogam alphabet is illustrated in Figure A.

Fig. A Ogam Alphabet
Most of our knowledge of Ogam comes from a Dublin manuscript, known as the Ogam Tract, composed by an unidentified monk in the 14th century. It describes some 94 varieties of Ogam and other alphabets known to the scribe, but the writer indicates that he knew of some 150 varieties of ancient Irish alphabets. A portion of one of the folio charts in the Ogam Tract is shown in Figure B.

Fig. B Folio chart from the Ogam Tract
Archaeological research shows that Ogam was widely used in many parts of the ancient world. It also occurs on Celtic coins issued in Gaul in the second century before Christ, some hundreds of years before the earliest known Irish Ogam inscriptions.

Fig. C Warning to Lug from magician Ogmios

The scribe relates the mythical account of the origin of Ogam. He tells us that the first Ogam message ever written was the work of a magician named Ogmios, and that it was a warning sent to Lug informing him of a plot to abduct his wife. On line 11 of folio page 309 of the Ogam Tract, the scribe reproduces the supposed warning message sent to Lug. It consists of the Ogam letters "S—N." This is the earliest literary reference to the Ogam Consaine (Consonantal Ogam), for the letters "S-N" are the consonants of the Old Irish word "siona" meaning "warning." The passage in the Tract (Figure C) is marked by the arrow and the word is shown enlarged below the Tract.

Fig. D Ogam Consaine inscription cut on an ancient tomb

Although the scribe evidently was familiar with Ogam Consaine, he did not give it that name, or any name at all. It was left for the 18th century Irish poet Eoghan Ruadh Ua Suilleabhain (1748—84) to coin the name, "Consonantal Ogam," and he did so in drawing attention to old, undeciphered, rock-cut inscriptions in Ireland, whose meaning remained a mystery (Figure D); for scholars of the day, unable to deal with a written script from which the vowels were omitted, could make no sense of the markings.

The ancient Ogam Consaine inscriptions of Ireland are found mainly in that country's northern section, and there are others of similar type in parts of Scotland. An example is the line of Ogam slashes visible on the capstone of the Bronze Age cromlech (grave monument) at Castlederg, in County Tyrone. In southern Ireland, especially Counties Cork and Kerry, the Ogam inscriptions are fully provided with the vowel points, and these have therefore been deciphered long since. The West Virginian Ogam inscriptions seem to have an affinity with those of northern Ireland.

Irish monastic records state that during the reign of Pope Pelagius (555—561), an Irish ecclesiastic named St. Brendan (Brennain) made two voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, discovering a land far to the west, identified by some historians as North America. It is known that Brendan founded the famous monastery of Clonfert in County Galway in the year 561, by which date his last voyage had been completed. It seems possible that the scribes who cut the West Virginia inscriptions may have been Irish missionaries in the wake of Brendan's voyage, for these inscriptions are Christian. This is evident even before they are deciphered, because the early Christian symbols of piety, such as the various Chi-Rho monograms (of the name of Christ) and the Dextera Dei ("Right hand of God"), appear at the sites together with the Ogam texts.

Fig. E Early Christian symbols of piety

Examples are shown in Figure E, together with corresponding examples from Europe. The Chi-Rho comprises a symbol formed from the two Greek letters that stand first in the name "Christ," Ch (resembling an X) and R (resembling a P). These letters are written separately at the site in Boone County, which is called the Horse Creek Petroglyph. At the Wyoming County Petroglyph, one of the Chi-Rho signs is that shown in Figure E-5. This is a combination of the two letters and closely matches a version used on the Byzantine coins of the Emperor Justinian 1(527—565), shown in Figure E-4. A different version of the Chi-Rho is the labarum (scepter) type, so-called because it formed the upper part of the labarum scepter of the Byzantine emperors. Figure E-1 shows the labarum Chi-Rho that appears on coins of Gratian (367—375), and Figure E-3 is the matching version at the Wyoming County site, while Figure E-2 is a late version found on coins issued by the Anglo-Saxon Wulfred, Archbishop of Canterbury (805—833).

Peculiarly Irish is the symbol called by scholars "The Incarnation Initial," of which a simplified version is shown in Figure E-7, taken from the Lindisfarne Gospels (A.D. 700). It consists of a large Chi, always introduced by the scribes at the beginning of the 18th verse of the first chapter of Matthew where the evangelist writes, "Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise."

The Wyoming County inscription relates the birth of Christ, and then, after stating that the child was born to Mary, the scribe inserts an Ogam version of the Incarnation initial, shown in Figure E-8. He has inserted some Ogam strokes into the Chi, to make the word "G-ia-N (game), meaning "Incarnation." When I first attempted to find the meaning of this sign, I read the Ogam letters in the sequence Ia-n-g (ionga) meaning "notch." As a word for notch, 'cab," occurs earlier in the inscription, referring to a notch that the sun will shine through on Christmas morning, this seemed a likely decipherment. But I believe the correct interpretation is that the whole symbol is an Ogam version of the Incarnation Initial.

Fig. F  Widely known symbol IHC

On a rock face adjacent to the Dextera Dei ("Right hand of God") site occur two lines of script not yet deciphered. In the upper line occurs the well-known symbol, I H C + (Figure F), used by the Western Church as a monogram of the name of Jesus. The letters are the first three Greek letters, IES, in the name "Iesos" (Jesus).

Fig. G Pious symbols used by early Christians

Another pious symbol used by the early Christians is the Dextera Dei, or Right Hand of God. An example carved on the 10th century Irish cross of Muiredach, at Monasterboice, is shown in Figure G-4. On page 347 of my book, Saga America, attention is drawn to the occurrence of this symbol at American archaeological sites. I have suggested that it implies contacts with Europe around the 10th century, when the symbol was a popular feature in coinage designs. Whether the West Virginian examples should be dated to the 10th century is at present uncertain, but my belief is that its presence supports the idea of continuing Irish contacts over a period of several centuries in the latter part of the first millennium.

Figures G-1 and G-2 show tracings from photographs of West Virginian engravings. The one on the left is made up of Ogam strokes, some of which are arranged to form a hand-like figure. Figure G-3, on the right, shows a hand within a circular nimbus, and the hand is composed of all the Ogam strokes. Figure G2 is a Libyan inscription placed just beneath the engraving of Figure G-1. Although I do not deal with Libyan texts in this article, it may be noted that the Libyan letters translate as Yamin Ilahi, meaning "The right hand of God." This is a fine example of what epigraphers best like to find, bilingual texts that say the same thing in two languages, the one confirming the other.


Fig. H  Photograph of a rebus on the Horse Creek Petroglyph
Figure H. Photograph of a rebus on the Horse Creek Petroglyph.
Credit: Arnout Hyde, Jr.

This is an appropriate point at which to say a little about how the texts are deciphered. When the Ogam strokes are arranged to suggest a picture, the result is what is called a rebus, obviously a device by the scribe to help the reader understand his inscription. The following are the steps by which we can interpret the rebus shown in Figure H.

Fig. I Ogam strokes arranged to suggest a picture

We note the hand in the lower part of the inscription. In Celtic languages, the verb stands first in the sentence and is followed by the subject. Accordingly, we disregard the first few strokes to the left and look for the word "hand" (lam in Old Irish). As expected, the letters L and M are there. They are preceded by three upper-case strokes (T), evidently the verb "is" (see Vocabulary at the end of this article). Thus, in line I-2 we can undertake to separate out the consonants, as shown. Line I-3 shows the succession of consonants we obtain. Line I-4 shows the text rewritten with appropriate vowel points inserted, so as to make a meaningful statement, using all the consonants. The Old Irish, in Latin script, is given in line I-5. A literal English rendering of each word is given in line I-6. In line I-7 the words are rearranged to conform to English grammar, the subject now preceding the verb.

Fig. J Rebus with Ogam strokes incorporated in a hand
Figure J. Rebus with Ogam strokes that are incorporated in a hand.
Credit: Arnout Hyde, Jr.

Fig. K Decipherment yields Father, Son and Holy Spirit, One God

A different type of rebus is shown in Figure J. Here all the Ogam strokes are incorporated into the hand, and there are three transverse stem lines crossing the strokes. This warns us that the Ogam strokes are to be read separately for each of the stem lines, assuming therefore different alphabet values according to whether they stand above, or below, or across, any given stem line. In short, the whole device is a monogram in which various letters have been superimposed. The resulting decipherment (Figure K) yields a sequence of Old Irish words: Atar, Mac, Sbiorad Noib, Oin Dia—"Father, Son and Holy Spirit, One God." And reference to early Christian literatures, such as the writings of Julian of Norwich, or Pier's Plowman, discloses that the mystical meaning of the Dextera Dei is that the hand symbolizes the unified Trinity, the closed fist God the Father, the fingers God the Son and the Palm the Holy Spirit.


Fig. L  Chalked Wyoming County Petroglyph







Figure L. Chalked Wyoming County Petroglyph.
Credit: Gerald Ratliff

The photograph shown here (Figure L) was sent to me in mid-November 1982, by Arnout Hyde Jr. at the request of Ida Jane Gallagher, with a request that the inscription depicted be deciphered if possible. On November 22 I telephoned Mrs. Gallagher, giving her my decipherment and asking if it would be possible to have observers at the site on December 22, in order to check whether the events given in the translation do in fact occur.

The December 22nd visit is described in detail in Mrs. Gallagher's article, "Light Dawns on West Virginia History."

Figure M.  Diagram of Wyoming County Petroglyph
The various sections of the Wyoming County Petroglyph text, as separately deciphered, are numbered on Figure M. Section M-9 is the added Algonquian text, to be discussed in a later article. There is also a Libyan text, some letters of which (appearing as dots in twos and threes, between the Ogam letters) partly overlap the Ogam, but mainly are contained on an adjacent panel not shown here. The Libyan text will be discussed in a later article. Both the Algonquian and Libyan texts appear to be later additions, each making appropriate comment on the Old Irish text.

My translations of lines 1 through 6 of the Wyoming County Petroglyph are given in Figures M-1 through M-6.

Figure M-1.  Close-up of line 1 of Figure M

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Figure M-2. Close-up of line 2 of Figure M

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Figure M-3. Close-up of line 3 of Figure M

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Figures M-4, M-5, M-6.  Close-up of lines 4, 5, and 6 of Figure M

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Fig. N  Horse Creek Petroglyph
Figure N. Photograph of Horse Creek Petroglyph.
Credit: Arnout Hyde, Jr.

A three-line Ogam text occurs on a rock face in Boone County, West Virginia, called the Horse Creek Petroglyph (Figure N).

Figure O.   Diagram of Horse Creek Petroglyph

Figure O-1.  Close-up of line 1 of Figure O

The diagram of the Horse Creek Petroglyph (Figure O) gives an exploded layout of the various texts. The two on the left, numbered 4 and 5, have already been referred to under the name "Dextera Dei" or "Right Hand of God." The horizontal lines 1, 2 and 3 comprise the Old Irish text, a short biblical abstract of the second chapter of the Gospel of Luke. The Old Norse three-line rock inscriptions are read in the sequence, first the middle line, next the bottom line, and last the top line. It would seem that this rule applies also here, as the most logical sequence. It would seem that the oldest part of the inscription is the upper right section, with the Chi-Rho, Alpha and Omega. At some later date a scribe decided to cut a Nativity text on the rock in such manner that the culminating event, the actual naming of the Christ Child, would be cited at the point when his text reached the pre-existing sacred signs for the name of Christ. He succeeded, but at a cost of overcrowding his text in the final section, which is consequently difficult to disentangle.

My translation of the Horse Creek Petroglyph is given in Figures O-1, O-2, and O-3.

Figure O-2.  Close-up of line 2 of Figure O

Figure O-3.  Close-up of line 3 of Figure O
The West Virginia Ogam texts are the longest Ogam inscriptions recorded from anywhere in the world. They exhibit the grammar and vocabulary of Old Irish in a manner previously unknown in such early rock-cut inscriptions in any Celtic language. The protection of these sites is of paramount importance. It has been an inspiring privilege to work with such historic material.


Dr. Barry Fell is an emeritus professor at Harvard University. He came to America from New Zealand in 1964. In addition to being a world-recognized authority on marine biology, he is president of the Epigraphic Society, and is editor and co-author of eight volumes of decipherments of ancient inscriptions. He wrote America B.C., which the American Booksellers Association presented to the White House in 1977 as one of the best 250 books published between 1973 and 1977 in the United States.

In his writings, Fell documents extensive and profound evidence, along with numerous photographs and illustrations, which supports his belief that America had ancient European, African and Nordic visitors centuries before Columbus landed on its shores.
Wonderful West Virginia readers who wish to learn more about this subject may order the following books by Fell from a bookstore: America B.C. (published by Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Company), Saga America (published by Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Company) and Bronze Age America (published by Little, Brown and Company Boston and Toronto).


Early Irish words found engraved on West Virginian rocks:

[Optical character recognition is reasonably accurate, but it is not a perfect way to digitize text. There may be bad characters in this section. -- Webmaster]

Abbreviations:  B, Bethlehem Rock site; DD, Dextera Dei inscriptions; SR, Christmas Sunrise site; L, Latin rendered in Ogam letters; G, Greek symbols; adj, adjective; adv, adverb; n, noun; v, verb.

aig (adj) happy, auspicious B
aite (adj) joyful, glad B
am (n) time, season B, SR
ainm (n) name B
atar, atair (n) father DD
Alpha Omega (n) 'He that is first and shall be last" G, B.
ba (v) was, were (from bi, to be) B
ben (n) woman; ossessive case mbna (Irish mna) SR
Bedil (n) Bethlehem B
Bedil Cos (n) The Cave of Bethlehem B
bendact (adj) blessed, L. benedictus SR
berir (v) he is born SR
bi (v) to be B, DD
bit (n) the world, all people B
bliatain (n) year SR
cab (n) notch, hollow SR
cos (n) cave B
Chi-Rha Criosd or Christus, G. symbols used by early Christians B, SR
D (1) abbreviation of L. die, on the day; D. Natal; L, Die Natale, on the day of Christmas, lit. "Birthday" of Christ. SR (2) abbreviation of L. Dominus, Lord, Domini, of the Lord SR
des (adj) right, right-hand DD
di (n) dav SR
Dia (n) God, of God B, DD
dion (n] shield, shelter DD
doisag (adj) first (O. Irish toisech) SR
eaglais (n) church SR
ele (n) prayer DD, BR
erig-gren (a) sunrise SR
fec, feg (v) behold! SR, B
fel, feil (n) feast, Feast Day (of the Church) B, SR
gab (v) conceive B
gad (n) ray, sunbeam (O. Irish gat, a dart) SR
gean (n) good will B
gian (for gain) (n) nativity, the Incarnation (of Christ) SR
gle (adj) left, left hand (O. Irish cle) SR
glet (adj) an the left side SR
grian (n) sun, gren, of the sun SR
hi, i (pronoun) she B
hog (n) virgin, maiden (O. Irish og, oige) B
iongad (n) miracle B
Iosa (n) Jesus B
lam (n) hand DD
Lam Des Dia right hand of God, L. Dextera Dei DD
leg, leig (v) cause, ordain B
mc, mac (n) son; Mac Dia, the Son of God B, DD
mbna (n) of a woman, possessive case of ben; Irish mna SR
moitac (adj) pregnant, (n) pregnant woman; apparently an American usage, in Ireland not used for human beings B
Maire, Muire (a) Mary, of Mary SR
Natal. (adj) L. Natalis, pertaining to a birth; D. Natal., L, Die Natale, on Christmas Day; see Notleg SR
noib (adj) holy, sacred DD
Notleg (n) Christmas, L. Natalica. In later Irish and Gaelic the word became Nollaig, meaning Christmas and (in Ireland) December B
oidia (n) foster father; at B, used for Joseph B
oin, oen (n) one; Oin Dia, One God DD
rug (v) gave birth to B
Sal. (v) L. Salvator, Savior SR
Sbiorad (n) spirit, L. Spiritus DD
Spiorad Noib The Holy Spirit DD
sif (v) to graze, sweep past, Gaelic siabh SR
ta (v) is, are, (ata at the beginning of a sentence) DD
ticin (n) coming, Advent SR
torag (adj) pregnant, with child; Irish torach B
tuig (v) give, gave B
uihm (n) cave, stone chamber or stable (for uaim) B

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West Virginia Archeologist: Hunter Lesser on cult archaeology
West Virginia Archeologist: Oppenheimer and Wirtz look at Fell's methodology
Wonderful West Virginia:     Robert L. Pyle on pre-Columbian contacts
West Virginia Archeologist: Hunter Lesser looks for pseudoscience, and finds it
Wonderful West Virginia:     Ida Jane Gallagher finds a "solstice alignment"
West Virginia Archeologist: Roger Wise looks for that "solstice alignment" again
Wonderful West Virginia:     Barry Fell deciphers Christian messages
A second opinion:                   A very different translation of Horse Creek
West Virginia Archeologist: Janet Brashler looks for all possible explanations, and tests them


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Ogam is a script found in Ireland and Scotland, inscribed mostly on stone but also on bone, ivory, bronze and silver objects. It was used in Ireland from about 350 to 800 AD by the early Irish evangelists who brought Gnostic Christianity to the island, written from the bottom up. From about 750 AD to 900 AD the Benedictine monks also used it in their inscriptions and their book the Auraicept, but they wrote it from left to right.

Academia is groping.
Many academics in different countries have tried to solve the Ogam script puzzle and all have suggested dissimilar solutions. Here are four of them.

Ogam is numerical, not linguistic.
Dr. Anthony Jackson[1] of Edinburgh University studied the inscriptions in Scotland and wrote: "It is clear that the Ogam inscriptions are numerically based and not linguistic." (p.153). When he gave the letters numbers according to the Latin alphabet he found fascinating arithmetic combinations embedded in them, based on prime numbers, and wrote: �Thus we seem to have a battle between rival magics� (p.154).

Ogam is Basque writing.
A Basque scholar from France, Dr. Henri Guiter[2], thought he could detect Basque words in the letters, however the results he obtained made very little sense. Dr. Douglas Gifford of St. Andrew�s University agreed with Guiter that Basque could be involved and urged further study.

Ogam is Old Norse writing.
Richard A.V. Cox[3], lecturer at Aberdeen University, saw the Old Norse language in the letters and wrote: �The use of the Norse language in these inscriptions suggests that the language of their composers was Old Norse� (p.166). Yet the results he obtained had been far from convincing.

Ogam is Celtic writing. Dr. Damien McManus[4], professor of Celtic at Trinity College in Dublin, wrote: "It can be shown without reasonable doubt that the Ogam alphabet was designed for the Irish language" (p.1). According to him, most inscriptions pointed to burials with epitaphs something like: Here lies Johnnie mourned by Mary. The problem was that no, or only a few, burials were ever found underneath the stones and his translations were hardly persuasive.

The Rh-negative clue.
I found Dr. Jackson's book while in Scotland researching the origin of Scottish and Irish geographical names and had found that many of them could be translated with the Basque dictionary. This finding was supported by the blood type of many of the inhabitants who had Rh negative blood, in about the same proportion as the Basque people in Spain. Dr. Cavalli-Sforza, in his article, "Genes Peoples and Languages" (November 1991 issue of Scientific American) had shown the world distribution of peoples with Rh negative blood and concluded that a sea migration was involved from NW Africa north along the west coast of Europe as far north as arctic Norway, the only peoples in the world to have 25% or higher frequency of this blood type. One of the tribes involved in this migration was still speaking their Neolithic language, the Basques, so it was logical to consider the possibility that the entire migration could have spoken that language. Indeed, a great many geographical names from Morocco, Euskadi, Ireland, Scotland and Norway could be translated into meaningful descriptions or comments with the Basque dictionary.

The language of Ogam is Basque.
The knowledge that Basque had been used in Ireland and Scotland agreed with Dr. Guiter and Dr. Gifford's findings, even though their results had been unconvincing. But Dr. Jackson also wrote, "All research along linguistic lines has ground to a halt, unsurprisingly..." (p.135) which remark I took as a challenge because these 1500+ year old inscriptions were so well executed and had been preserved for so long, that they just had to tell us something important. While on the Isle of Barra I buried myself for three days in my B&B room and discovered that the �meaningless� lists of letters of the inscriptions contained Basque sentences using words starting with vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV), which about half of the Basque vocabulary has. Ogam used the first three letters of these Basque words, with the VCVs linked together by the vowels, just like Basque words e.g: ohitura (custom), composed of three VCVs: ohi-itu-ura, note the vowels on either side of the hyphens are the same; ohi (habit) itungaitz (disagreeable) urratu (to break). Ohitura therefore had the built-in shorthand sentence saying: "Break that disagreeable habit."

This knowledge I then applied to the Ogam inscriptions, filled in the missing vowels, and translated my first Ogam inscription found in Scotland into a good sentence. I sent my findings to Dr. Jackson who did not answer but instead sent me a second book of his, in which he had written: "There is a popular theory that they are Basque but this does not work either." (p.118) He hadn't looked very hard at what I wrote.

Two examples from Scotland.
There appear to be no true Scottish Ogam inscriptions. All Ogams found in Scotland were made by Irish evangelists who used pre-Christian standing stones to tell people to come to Christ and other important statements. Here is one, located in the Shetlands and called: Cunningsburgh 3a:


ETTEKA, which has only one vowel missing: et.-.te-eka;
et.   eti   etikoa   ethical
.te   ite   itegun   work performed, hard work
eka   eka   ekandu   make it a habit
"Make ethical behaviour and hard work a habit".

A second one, more difficult; is called Buckquoy, located on Mainland, Orkney:


ETMIKMSSALLK which has six vowels missing: et.-.mi-ik.-.m.-.s.-.sa-al.-.l.-.k.:

et.   eti   etika   ethics
.mi   imi   imitagarri   exemplary
ik.   ika   ikasbide   teachings
.m.   amo   amodio   love
.s.   oso   oso   sincere
.sa   osa   osatu   to heal
al.   ala   alaitu   to fill with happiness
.l.   ale   alen   total
.k.   eku   ekurutasun   peace of mind
"Exemplary teachings of ethics and sincere love will heal you and fill you with total happiness and peace of mind."

Two examples from Ireland.
A large variety of topics are discussed in Irish inscriptions, from jokes to disaster stories and funerals. The first one is one of the longest known and tells the tragic story of a woman falling down a cliff into the ocean. It is inscribed on a silver bracelet which may be seen in the treasury of the National Museum in Dublin.

The Ballispellan Broche (#27).

The silver Ballispellan broche is located in the Treasury of the National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. The inscription became a challenge for me because the inscription is so perfectly done and it is one of the longer known.



Or, in Basque letters and in VCV format:


.k.   ika   ikaratu   to be frightened
.na   ana anai    brother
a.e   ahe aihezka   grieving
em.   ema   emazte   wife
.se   ase   aserregorri   fury
ek.   eka ekaizte   storm
.h.   ahi   ahituezin    endless
.ke   ike ikertu   to explore, to search
el.   ele   ele    story
.la   ela   elaberriti    talker, story teller
ak.   aka akabu   dead
.h.   aha   ahaideko   relative
.mi   ami   amilketa    fell down cliff
ino   ino   inolaz    somehow
odo   odo   odolgaizto    violently
or.   ora   oratu   to seize, to grab
.mu   amu   amuzki    bait
u.a   uha   uharka    water body
ad.   ada   ada    roaring
.ma   amai   amaitu    endlessly
a.e   aihe   aihenatu    to disappear
el.   ele   elegile    storyteller
.ma   ama   emakumezko    woman
a.i   ai   aitortu    to witness
ire   ire   irenste    devoured, swallowed
ema   emai    emaitza    ending
a.e   aihe   aihenegarri   lamentable
elu   elu elurtu    to freeze
u.a   uha   uhalde    coast
ada   ada   adarreztatu    to cover with branches
a.i   ahi   ahizpa   sister (of a woman)
ig.   iga   igar    dead

My frightened brother and his grieving wife searched endlessly in the fury of the storm. The story teller's dead relative had somehow fallen violently down a cliff, was seized like bait by the endlessly roaring water and then disappeared. The story teller had witnessed the woman being devoured by the sea. The lamentable ending on that frozen coast was the covering of her dead sister with branches.

Two inscriptions are found on a bronze hanging bowl, probably an incense burner, dug up from a peat bog in County Kerry. McManus (7.6) writes: "They are inscribed along the upper surface of the rim and on one of the escutcheons." This bowl may be seen in the National Museum in Dublin. Here is one of the two inscriptions:


Bladnak kuilen:

.b.-.la-ad.-.na-ak. .ku-ile-en.
.b.    abe   abe    cross
.la    ela    ela    story
ad.   ade   adelatu    to prepare
.na   ena    ena     that
ak.    aka    akabu    ultimate, superior
.ku   eku    ekurutasun    peace of mind
ile   ile   ilezin    everlasting
en.   ene   eneganatu    to come over me/us

"The story of the cross prepares us for that ultimate everlasting peace of mind (which will) come over us. "


A Traslation Program from ViewZone

In his excellent book, Linguistic Archaeology, An Introduction by Edo Nyland, the author provides a comprehensive glossary of Basque root words. Gary Vey has programmed this database using JavaScript and has made this program available here in an attempt to demonstrate the methodology of Mr. Nyland's algarythm. We encourage those interested to use the program and to give us feedback and photographic documantation of ogam script found both in the Americas and abroad.

We also highly recommend this book for anyone seriously interested in petroglyphs or ancient writing and culture. Click Here for Ogam Translation Program

Comments? E-mail Viewzone


You may also enjoy this previous article on suspected Ogam script found in Colorado.


1 Jackson, Anthony. "The Symbol Stones of Scotland". Orkney Press, 1984.
2 Guiter, Henri. "La Langue des Pictes". Boletin de la Real Sociedad Vascongada de lost Amigos del Pais, XXIV, San Sebastian 1968, pages 281-322.
Guiter, Henri. "La Pens�e Pictes". Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Bud�, XXIX, Paris 1970, pages 259-271.
3 Cox, Richard A.V. "The Language of the Ogam inscriptions of Scotland". Department of Celtic, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, 1999.
4 Damien McManus. "A Guide to Ogam". Maynooth Monograph #4. Maynooth, Ireland: An Sagert 1991.
5 Jackson, Anthony. "Pictish Symbol Stones?". Monograph #3, Edinburgh. The Association of Scottish Ethnography, 1993.

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The Middle Fork Ogam Rock Shelter


Having almost 600 ogam strokes, this site is probably one of the largest in Kentucky and perhaps the United States. After discovery in the early 1990s by Mr Michael Griffith, Breathitt Co, Ky & Dr David Feldman of Lancaster, the leading amateur epigrapher in Kentucky, Dr John Payne of Berea became involved.

Then Dr Payne contacted the Midwestern Epigraphic Society in 2002 for the translator, Mr Michel-G�rald Boutet of Laval, Qu�bec to translate. In Feb 2003 Mr Boutet reported his initial analysis of this ogam site indicates the basic content concerns BOUNDARY MARKERS; and like the "Pig Pen" site the language appears to be Proto-Algonquian. In 2004 he announced that the site appears to be much older than he thought and considerably more work is needed before the message can be completely clear.

The Site

Portion of the entrance boulder Rock Shelter Wall
Can you see the turtle head?

The rock shelter is located on the middle fork of the Kentucky River and is the kind favored by old world Celtic people - one with a large boulder at the entrance just under the overhanging rock roof, and a nearby source of water, in this case a river. Both the boulder and the back wall of the shelter are covered with hundreds of ogam grooves.

Its relative isolation and accessibility from only the river has protected the shelter from most modern graffiti. Periodic flooding has camouflaged the shelter entrance with debris and covered the lower levels of ogam grooves with protective layers of mud. All this made it hard to find once again in the Fall of 2002 for MES documentation and required washing the rock surface to reveal the ogam for tracing and photography. Every precaution was taken to preserve the site.

Some Remarks

We'll have to wait for the translation, but some general remarks can be made.

Several "stars" appear in the ogam script, suggesting reference to those in the Kentucky night sky. If the translation does indicate astronomical references, site compass readings should be made to collaborate it. Natural circular depressions in the rock face seem to have been worked into the script and several possibly man-made "holes" may prove significance.

Curiously, a number of wide, deep and long grooves overlay more shallow grooves, implying a later attempt to change or "correct" the original inscriptions. The petina of these large grooves is noticeably darker too and could be from a pigment source rather than natural aging. This is mostly evident on the boulder. Perhaps a new religion was adopted by the culture/tribe or a different faction came into power and wanted to remove what were now deemed "politically or religiously incorrect". If true, this would add support to the rock shelters use being shaman indoctrination of neophytes and perhaps execution of various tribal rites. Again we will have to wait for a translation.

A missing piece from the boulder had been retrieved from the river and its original location on the boulder identified by aligning to severed ogam strokes. Other portions along the top edge of the boulder also seem to be missing - noted by interrupted ogam marks and a brighter rock petina than the rest of the boulder. Their loss probably does not affect the overall translation, but for the sake of completeness, their recovery should be attempted.

A Geologist who recently completed a scientific study the Kensington Rune Stone will now study this rock shelter to verify its antiquity.


"The Celtic Connection" by Michel-G�rald Boutet, 1996, Stonehenge Viewpoint, P.O. Box 30887, Santa Barbara, Ca 93130-0887. More ogam translations and Amerindian connections by Boutet, and related articles by other writers.

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The Ogam alphabet consists of twenty letters. They are markings upon vertical lines, read upward along those lines with breaks between words. The alphabet is believed to originate with Ogma, prince of the Tuatha de Danaan, during the reign of Bres in the late fourth millennium B.C. The name 'Ogam' is thought to be a corruption of 'Ogmaan', meaning 'of Ogma'.

In the twelfth century A.D. there was a movement against religious alternatives, perhaps in reaction to the Cathars and the Templar Knights, magian Israelites who offered a different version of Christianity. The Germanic Church banned the use of Ogam in an attempt to stifle their alternative priesthood. The wizardly Faan and Danaan monks were removed, but were allowed to transcribe the histories of the island kingdoms into the Roman alphabet. Theirs are the oldest versions which survive today. Before that time there had been whole libraries of Ogam books in Ireland. These books had been bound at the spines in the manner which we use today, and the pages had been sheets of beaten bark.

At Horse Creek in West Virginia, a petroglyph inscription has been found using a northern African alphabet closely related to island Ogam. The language of the inscription is Euskaric, which linguist Edo Nyland claims was the pre-Christian language spoken across Europe, stamped out during the 'witch hunts' (the holocaust which killed off the Faan). The only surviving Euskaric language is spoken by the Basques of the Pyrenees. Nyland says that Ogam really originated in north Africa, and that the name is derived from the words 'property of the Goddess' in Euskaric.

Ogam inscriptions found in Europe record a Euskaric language similar to Basque, and Nyland claims that Euskaric was stifled in Ireland when the indigenous monks were replaced. These monks were descendants of Faan and Athenians and had ties to the Coptic Church. Nyland believes that the story about Ogma was made up (to hide the Coptic connection, perhaps) and indeed there is proof that Ogam predates Ogma's time. This proof comes from Marija Gimbutas, a specialist in very ancient Europe, and she has found a precursor to Ogam script dating back to 5300 B.C.


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Horses and The Book of Mormon

Compiled By Glen W. Chapman Nov. 1996
Published By Benjamin G. Chapman

In The Book of Mormon Nephi reports in the wilderness when moving inland they found:


Book of Mormon 1 Nephi Chap18 v. 25
25 And it came to pass that we did find upon the land of promise, as we journeyed in the wilderness, that there were beasts in the forests of every kind, both the cow and the ox, and the ass and the horse, and the goat and the wild goat, and all manner of wild animals, which were for the use of men…

The Book of Mormon has received severe criticism because of these statements. The Smithsonian in There "Statement Regarding the Book of Mormon" prepared by the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC SIL-76, Summer 1982 reports: "American Indians had no…horses, donkeys, camels before 1492 ( Camels and horses were in the Americas along with the bison, mammoth, and mastodon, but all these animals became extinct around 10,000 BC). Since That statement a number of findings have been made which are strange to say the least and require careful investigation. Some of these findings are shown below:

"In the following reference from a book by T.L. Tanton. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 167-Fort Williams and Fort Arthur and Thunder Cape Map-Areas ,pp. I -222. Ottawa.1931: "Relics were discovered July. 1918. in an excavation made by the Canada Car and Foundry Company about 80 feet north from the turning basin. Westforl. About twelve bones of a mammal and a finely made copper spearhead were found together about 40 feet below the surface of the ground. The materials found were submitted to the Geological Survey and Harlan l. Smith, archeologist, reported the results of examination as follows .'.According to Mr. Lawrence I. Lambe, vertebrate paleontologist of the Geological Survey and Mr. Sternherg, preparator of paleontological specimens. the bone marked B 11 . . . is of a cloven-footed animals. possibly a buffalo, or a specimen of domestic cattle.... Bones marked B 10 and B 12 to B 13 inclusive, Mr. Lambe and Mr. Sternberg both pronounced to be those of a horse and not petrified. Mr. Sternberg is convinced that most of them belong to the same individual. The point with the flanged tang made of copper marked C 1 is characteristic and typical of prehistoric Indian handiwork.'

Griffin and Quimby. who investigated the site in 1957, noted that if the bones and copper artifacts were found in situ, they predate the Nipissing stage of the Lake Superior basin (pre-2000 BC) since they were on a bed of blue clay under layers of sand deposited by flooding during that period. Quimby, 'The Old Copper Assemblage and Extinct Animals,. American Antiquity, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 169-70, Salt Lake City, University of Utah.

Further evidence of renegade horses in the new world was found in a burial mound in Wisconsin. A horse's skull was found buried with other indian. artifacts which were subsequently dated to around 700 AD " Chuck Baily, Louisiana Mounds Society Newsletter 31 March 15, 1990 Page 4

"Survival of Pre-Columbian Horse?" Holland Hague has written to inquire if anybody has information about the possibility of the pre-Columbian horse having survived in this hemisphere. He included documentation of horse bones radiocarbon dated to A.D. years prior to Columbus that were then not followed up by the scholars involved. The pre-Columbian horse was supposed to have become extinct about 10,000 years ago, when the satire-toothed tiger, mammoth, giant ground sloth and other large mammals in this hemisphere died out."Lousiana Mounds Society Newsletter 29 January 1, 1990 page 5

Picture From

The above picture is from The article Peru's Incredible Ica Stones By John Dan Reib From The Ancient American November/December 1993. It is part of an estimated 100, 000 ancient carved stones discovered by Dr. Javier Cabera .from under lava layers in the Ocucaje Desert near Ica Peru. Dr Cabera set upon a search which led him to a tunnel under the Nasca lines. At present has about fifteen tthousand carved in his own museum in Ica. Swedish scientists have investigated his stones and find them sufficiently to be worthy of further investigation.

Bearded Man On Horse

The Above picture of a bearded man and a horse is carved on the Temple of Palques, Chichen Itza, Yucatan Mexico . It was photographed by Otto Done and appeared in The Improvement Era December 1955.

Carved Piture -Monte Vista Colorado

The picture above is an ancient pictograph carved on rocks near Monte Vista Colorado and appeared in The Improvement Era October 1955. These carvings are considered by experts to be ancient.

Unbridled Hourse - Moundbuilders

A Moundbuilder pictograph of the likeness of an unbridled horse in Picture Canyon, Cirnarron County, Oklahoma, which shows that Indians in early times were acquainted with horses. This picture appeared in October 1955 Improvement Era.

Stone Tablets - Michagan Moundbuilders

The picture above was taken from page100 of the book The Mystic Symbol Mark of The Michigan Mound Builders by Henrietta Mertz ( Global Books 1986) and shows stone tablets carved by Michigan Moundbuilders.

The figure above is a view of an ancient Moundbuilder carving of a white limestone horses head discovered in North Salem New York. It is from the Book Saga America by Dr. Berry Fell page 57 and published in 1980

The picture above is a pictograph discovered in Anubis Cave Number Two in Colorado along with Ogam inscriptions and is taken from the book In Plain Sight Old World Records in Ancient America. By Gloria Farley 1994

The above picture is a pictograph from Picture Canyon, Colorado. And is considered by experts to be ancient. It was taken from the book In Plain Sight Old World Records in Ancient America. Page 349 By Gloria Farley 1994

The above picture is of a pictograph with ogam script on sholder discovered in western Oklahoma. It is considered ancient dating back to the Moundbuilder period.. It was taken from the book In Plain Sight Old World Records in Ancient America. Page 349 By Gloria Farley 1994

There are many other case that could be shown but they are similar to what we have already shown


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Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien




Indogermanische V�lker und Sprachen / Indo-European Peoples and Languages
Die Ogamschrift / The Ogham Script

Beispiele ihres Gebrauchs / Examples of its usage


The Ogham Script

 Vowel Notches  Downward Strokes  Upward Strokes  Perpendicular Strokes  "Forfeda"
 A  ?  B  ?  (H)  ?  M  ?  X/AE  ?
 O  ?  L  ?  D  ?  G  ?  CH/EA  ?
 U  ?  V  ?  T  ?  (G�)  ?  P/IA  ?
 E  ?  S  ?  C  ?  (S�)  ?  TH/OI  ?
 I  ?  N  ?  Q  ?  R  ?  PH/UI  ?

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Inscription from Rockfield, Co. Kerry, now in Adare
(CIIC, no. 244):


*Co�lbad maic Coirbb | maic moccu Ciarraige

"(Stone of) Co�lub, son of Corb, son (-descendant of the tribe) of the Ciarraige"

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Inscription of Ballycrovane / Faunkill-and-the-Woods, Co. Cork
(CIIC no. 66):

"(Stone of) Mac-Deche, grandson of Tornae"
(draft from: PRIA 15, 1874, 196) Cp. CGH, p. 208: Rawl. B 502, 149b, 51:
Hui Thornae

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Inscription of Greenhill, Co. Cork
(CIIC no. 58):

"(Stone of) Cathub"
Cp. gen. Cathbad e.g. in CGH 195: 148a 20.

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Inscription of Rockfield, now in Adare
(CIIC no. 243.):

"(Stone of) Mac-Rithe, son of Co�lub,
son-descendant (of the tribe) of the Ciarraige"

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Inscription of Colbinstown, Co. Kildare
(CIIC no. 21.):

"(Stone of X,) son of Co�lub"

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Inscription of Dromore, Co. Waterford
(CIIC no. 266.):

"(Stone of) Co�lub, descendant of Lug,
son of Lobch�"
Cp. R.A.S. Macalister, Studies in Irish Epigraphy, 3, London 1907, 182:

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Chronological order:


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Inscription of Carhoovauler, Co. Cork
(CIIC no. 73.):

"(Stone of) Domngen"
Phonetic development:
(Cp. ms. Rawl.B 502 160b 53 (CGH 311):

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Inscription of Maumanorig, Co. Kerry
(CIIC no. 193.):

"(Inscription in the) name of Colm�n, (the) pilgrim"

(Cp. ms. attestations: Colm�n, ailithir).

(from: PRIA 44 C 9/10, 1938, 241)

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Bilingual cross inscription (Runic and Ogham) of Killaloe
(CIIC no. 54.):

Runic inscription:
"�orgrim engraved this cross"
Ogham inscription:
"Blessing upon �orgrim"
(from: PRIA 38 C 8/9, 1929, 237)

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"Pictic" inscription of Brandsbutt, Aberdeenshire:


(from: Fs. McN�ill, 1940, 196)

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Latin text written in Ogham in the Annals of Inisfallen (AD 1193)
(ms. Rawlinson B. 503, 40c):

(from: Annals of Inisfallen, ed. S. Mac Airt, 1977, 318)
"Money is honoured, without / money nobody is loved."

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Bilingual inscription of Nevern, Pembroke
(CIIC no. 446):


"(Stone of) Ma�lch�, son of Cluthar"

(from: CIIC 1, 424)

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19th century Ogham inscription from Ahenny, Co. Tipperary

(cf. Barry Raftery, A Late Ogham Inscription from Co. Tipperary. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 99, 1969, 163 f.):

Ogham Inscription:
Fa an lig so na lu ata Mari ni Dhimusa
o mballi na gCranibh
"Beneath this stone lieth M�ri N� Dh�omasaigh
from Ballycranna"
(Grave stone of Mary Dempsey, dated Jan. 4th, 1802)
English inscription:
"Beneath this sepulchral tomb lie the remains
of Mary Dempsey who departed this life
January the 4th 1802 aged 17 years"
"The Ahenny stone .. is eloquent testimony to the continuing existence and knowledge of the Ogham alphabet among the country people of early nineteenth century Ireland, a continuity which can be traced in sporadic instances from the middle of the frist millennium A.D. at least."

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Ogham stone of Kilbonane, Co. Kerry
(CIIC no. 241):

(from: Richard Rolt Brash, On an Ogham-Inscribed Stone, at Kilbonane, County of Kerry. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 15 = 2.Ser. 1, 1871-1879, 27-29, plate III)

(stone as re-erected by 1996)

"I found the inscribed stone lying horizontally, covering a vault immediately under the east window, and within the church."

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"Shield Ogham" (ogam airenach) according to the Book of Ballymote:

(Beginning of the Auraicept na n-�ces in the Book of Ballymote)

(The "Shield Ogham" ib.)

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Use of the word a(i)nm "name" in Ogham inscriptions:


Inscription of Coolineagh / Aghabullogue, Co. Cork
(CIIC no. 104):

Reading Macalister:

New reading:
"(Inscription in the) name of Cuirre, son of Fedelmid (?)"

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Inscription of Kilmalkedar, Co. Kerry
(CIIC no. 187):

(Inscription in the) name of Ma�l-Inbir, son of Br�ch�n.

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Usage of Ogham inscriptions according to a Middle Irish saga text
contained in the Book of Leinster (LL 66 AB):

Complete page:
(One-to-one rendering of the manuscript reading)

amlaid b�i faichthi ind�n 7corthi
furri. 7id iarnaidi nathimchiull 7id niacchais
�side7ainm noguinnamenoc. 7is�ainmb�iand
Gipetised infaidche dianbagascedach geis fair
ARthecht dindfaidchi cenchonrac noenfhir dofhuacra.
AIRlegais in m_c.b.innainm 7tucadarigid
mun coirthi.
(Rendering after interpretation)
Phonetic interpretation:
(Transcription with the International Phonetic Alphabet)
Amlaid b�i faichthi in dunaid ogus corthi
furri ogus id iarnaidi na thimchiull ogus id niachais
�side ogus ainm n-oguim na menoc, ogus is � ainm b�i and:
Gip e tised in faidche, dia m-ba gascedach, geis fair
ar thecht dind faidchi cen chomrac n-oenfhir do fhuacra.
Airlegais in mac bec in n-ainm ogus tuc a d� rigid
mun coirthi.
'?ml?�' 'b?e_ f'a?'�'i in'�u:?n?�'
'?g?s 'k?r?'? 'fur:?
'?g?s ?�''i:?rn?�'? n? '?'i?'�'ul
'?g?s ?�'n'i:????' 'e:?'?�'?
'?g?s '?n'?m 'no??m' n? 'menog
'?g?s i?''e: ?n'?m 'b?e_ '?n:
gi'b:e: 'ti:?'e� ?n'??'�'?
'di:?m? 'g??'k'e�??
'g'e?' f?r' ?r'?'e?t d?n:'??'�'?
'k'en '??mr?g 'n?e_n'?r d?'u:?kr?
?r''l'e???' ?n'm?c 'b'ec ?n:'?n?m
'?g?s 'tug ?�?:'ri?'?�' mun 'k?r?'?
Free German translation:
Die Burgwiese war so beschaffen: sowohl ein Pfeiler
darauf als auch um diesen ein eiserner Ring, und (zwar war) ein Ring der Heldenhaftigkeit
dieser, und eine Inschrift in Ogam auf dessen Verschlu�st�ck, und dies ist die Inschrift, die sich darauf befand:
Wer auch (immer) auf die Wiese kommen sollte, wenn er bewaffnet ist, ein Verbot f�r ihn,
von der Wiese wegzugehen, ohne zum Einzelkampf herauszufordern.
Der kleine Junge las die Inschrift vor und legte seine zwei Arme
um den Pfeiler.

Interlinear Version:
(Transcriptional text with German word-by-word translation):
 Amlaid  b�i  faichthi  in  dunaid
 So  war  Wiese  der  Burg
   ogus  corthi  furri
   und  Pfeiler  auf_ihr
   ogus  id  iarnaidi  na  thimchiull
   und  dies  Eisen  der  Umgebung
   ogus  id  niachais    ï¿½side
   und  dies  Heldenhaftigkeit  dieses_da
   ogus  ainm  n-oguim  na  menoc
   und  Inschrift  Ogam  des  Verschlu�st�cks,
   ogus  is  ï¿½  ainm  b�i  and:
   und  ist  sie  Inschrift  war  so:
 Gipe  tised  in  faidche,  
 Wer_auch_immer_es_sei  der_kommen_wird  in  Wiese,
   dia  m-ba  gascedach,
   wenn  er_sei  bewaffnet,
 geis  fair  ar  thecht  dind  faidchi
 Verbot  ï¿½ber_ihn  zu  Gehen  von_der  Wiese,
   cen  chomrac  n-oenfhir    do  fhuacra.
   ohne  Kampf  des_Einzelmanns  zu  Fordern.
 Airlegais  in  mac  bec  in  n-ainm  
 Las_vor  der  Junge  kleine  die  Inschrift
   ogus  tuc  a  d�  rigid  mun  coirthi.
   und  legte  seine  zwei  Arme  um  Pfeiler.

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Development of Irish family names

 Ogham Irish  Old / Middle Irish  Anglo-Irish
  MAQ AMMLLOGADO  mac amalgado   Mac Awley
  MACI BROCANN  mac br�ccan   Mac Brohan
  MAQI CORRBRI  mac cairpre   Mac Carbery
  *MAQI DUMNOVALI  mac domnaill   Mac Donal(d)
  *MAQI VERAGOSO  mac fergoso   Mac Fergus
  *MAQI OINAGOSO  mac �engoso   Mac Guinness
  *AVI CELACI  ua cellaig   (�) Kelly
  *AVI CORRE  ua cuirre   � Corry
  *AVI CUNACOBRO  ua conchobor   � Connor
  *AVI QENAVIDO  ua cina�da   (�) Kennedy
  *AVI MURACADO  ua murchada   (�) Murphy
R.A.S. Macalister, Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum, Vol. 1, Dublin 1945
M.A. O'Brien, Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae, vol. 1, Dublin 21976
Damian McManus, Ogam: Archaizing, Orthography and the Authenticity of the Manuscript Key to the Alphabet. �riu 37, 1986, 1-31
Damian McManus, A Guide to Ogam, Maynooth 1991
Jost Gippert, Ogam. Eine fr�he keltische Schrifterfindung. Praha 1993

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Achtung: Dieser Text ist mit Unicode / UTF8 kodiert. Um die in ihm erscheinenden Sonderzeichen auf Bildschirm und Drucker sichtbar zu machen, mu� ein Font installiert sein, der Unicode abdeckt wie z.B. der TITUS-Font Titus Cyberbit Unicode. Attention: This text is encoded using Unicode / UTF8. The special characters as contained in it can only be displayed and printed by installing a font that covers Unicode such as the TITUS font Titus Cyberbit Unicode.

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Ancient America


The Pacific Ocean is bounded by America on its eastern side, stretching from 70degrees North to 55 degrees south. As trade winds and equatorial ocean currents travel in a westerly direction, it would be foolish to assume that America did not play a part in the populating of the Pacific. Therefore, to ascertain the complexities of human migration in the Pacific region, we need to understand fully how America was populated.

It appears that there have been some gross inaccuracies and misunderstandings that have led scientists to accept an oversimplified model of human entry into America via the Bering land bridge during the height of the last ice age. No consideration to the possibility that ocean crossings played a significant part in the populating of the Americas, has been given. Recent studies of the tool kits of the first Americans suggest an entry from Spain and not from Siberia. Not only this, but paleolithic Caucasian genes appear to form the basal layer of the genetic makeup of many native Americans, helping to confirm a trans-Atlantic entry into Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago. Recent discoveries of three 13,000 year old Cro magnon man skeletons in an underwater cave in the Bahamas suggests that the above is true and correct.

Almost all archaeology to date has been based on the discovery of sites that are above sea level. Sea levels rose to present day levels about 6,000 years ago, therefore there has to be a great deal hidden underwater prior to this event, distorting the picture of early habitation of our planet. Factors that determined human settlement 20,000 years ago were much the same as they are today, as a result the preferred sites for towns and cities would have been on the coast. The sea provided unhindered passage to other towns for trade (no mountains, canyons, powerful river currents, jungles, deserts or hostile tribes to interfere with ones passage). Not only that, but boats were the trucks of the olden days, transporting large cargoes for trade.

The availability and choice of food is also more diverse along a coastline, as both land and marine produce can be obtained. Temperatures are less extreme and the likelihood of life giving rain is also much greater. Therefore almost all ancient towns of any consequence would have been by the sea and so, the great majority of towns and cities prior to 6,000 years ago are all underwater from sea level rises since the last ice age.

Many megalithic monuments around the world are made from rocks that have been transported hundreds of kilometres away from their source, suggesting that large sailing boats were in use  6,000 years ago and possibly as early as 18,000 years ago. Boats were one of the earliest forms of communal transport invented by man, seaworthy boats would have expanded mans horizons immeasurably. As a result of him using the 'highways of the sea', his desire to determine where he was going, fueled a revolution in astronomy, mathematics, trigonometry and ultimately world trade. The Polar meltdown between 7,000 and 5,500 years ago talked about later in this chapter would not only have produced a rapid rise in sea level, but also, the iso static rebound would have caused subsidence of weak crustal areas such as the mid Atlantic Ridge, causing earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis, resulting in the devastation of coastal towns and the decimation of all seafaring nations around the world. Not only did it destroy the people of this time, but also much of the knowledge which they possessed.

This was not the only catastrophic rise in sea level that early man has had to deal with, there were others - 14,000, 11,600, 8,200 and 6,000 years ago. It was after these events that we find the survivors taking an interest in swamp agriculture around lakes and on highland plateaus without fear of inundation. Such areas that were chosen were , Lake Chad, Lake Titicaca, New Guinea Highlands, Highlands of Luzon, the Nile, the Tigris, the Indus, the Upper Amazon, the Mississippi, the Mekong, the Yangtze and so on. With these few survivors, they would have retained only the bare essentials and much of the old technology was lost or forgotten. It appears that archaeologists may have mistaken this regrouping of man after the final floods as the beginning of agriculture and civilization. Discoveries of cities around India, Yonaguni and an underwater city in 700m of water off Cuba indicate that archaeologists have grossly misunderstood their findings and have merely scratched the surface of human prehistory.

Dr Muck, an archaeologist, describes archeological sites in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Southern Carolina, dating back 15,000-18,000 years which demonstrate that the ocean-going Solutreans may have first entered America by sailing across the Atlantic.

The notion that Clovis originated in or spread throughout North America from a point of origin in the Northern Plains (within an ice-free corridor between the continental glaciers) is not supported by the distribution of finds. Clovis may actually have dispersed into North and South America from the Caribbean and Central America, much of which is now submerged, making it difficult to ascertain the exact time of entry into America.

Underwater caves off Yucatan yield three old skeletons—remains date to 13,000 years ago.
by Dr. Greg Little
September 10, 2004
"At the international "Early Man in America Seminar" in Mexico City on September 9, 2004, an archaeological team from Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History reported one of the most significant finds ever made in American archaeological history. Three well-preserved skeletons were discovered in underwater caves off the Caribbean coast of Yucatan during dives during 2001 and 2002. The skeletons were found in 65-foot-deep water. The University of California in Riverside carbon-dated charcoal samples found with one of the skeletons to over 13,000 calendar years ago—11,000 B.C. The find represents the oldest carbon date associated with any human bone remains found in the Americas. Mexican archaeologist Arturo Gonzalez led the dive team.
Gonzalez noted that during the last Ice Age, sea levels were much lower, but as we reported in our book and video documentary, "The ARE's Search for Atlantis," archaeologists from Florida State University's Underwater Archaeology Department (FSU) found that in the area "of the Bahamas in 10,500 B.C., the water levels were about 100 feet lower than today. But areas of human occupation on these ancient shores tend to cluster at depths around the 45-foot level."
The new discovery of Yucatan remains dated to 11,000 B.C. comes as we are completing the video documentary, "The Yucatan Hall of Records," scheduled for release at the ARE's Annual Ancient Mysteries Conference. The discovery has been incorporated into the video and confirms several statements made by Andrew Collins, which were made during a videotaped interview for the documentary. Collins, author of the best selling, "Gateway to Atlantis," tells the story of Votan, the Guatemalan highlands version of Itzamna. In both the stories of Itzamna and Votan, related in Maya codices, the founder of the Maya culture was said to have come from an island in the east. Collins stated that substantial research has shown that Votan's origin was definitely Cuba. Both Itzamna and Votan carried written records with them. According to Collins, Votan landed on the shores of the Yucatan coast and gradually moved north. We believe that Cerritos Island, which we visited in August 2004, may have been the initial landing site of Iltar/Itzamna/Votan."

The Clovis - Solutrean connection

Dr. Stanford an archaeologist of the highest caliber, turned away from the Bering route and looked elsewhere for the first migration. His thinking evolved over three decades. In the '60s Stanford, like most of his colleagues, believed that Clovis came from Asia. It wasn't until the '70s that he began to believe that Clovis was a New World development and that evidence of pre-Clovis would be found in the Arctic. "But I wasn't seeing evidence," he recalls, "and after a while it started not to make sense. Everything I found in Alaska that was fluted was post-Clovis in age." There was no technology he considered pre-Clovis. He hoped at the time that once Siberia was opened up to Western scientists we would find the missing evidence. But the end of the Cold War didn't provide the solution for Stanford and his co-theorist, lithics expert Bruce Bradley. Stanford and Dr. Bradley independently looked at the evidence and arrived at the same conclusion. They inspected late-Pleistocene sites and scoured museum collections in Siberia, Russia, and northern China, seeking pre-Clovis technology. Instead, what they found was a totally different method of making tools and weapons.


The Clovis fluted point is knapped from stone, flaked on both sides (bifacial) and shaped into a beautiful thin, flat killing instrument; the base is thinned and relieved into a concave recess so that the point can be securely hafted onto a foreshaft or shaft. The Asian upper-Paleolithic weapons that Stanford and Bradley found, however, were made using a microblade technology, where tiny blades struck from wedge-shaped cores of stone were inset into long, narrow rods of bone, antler, or ivory. When Far East craftsmen tried to make bifacial tools, the result was relatively crude implements (quite thick in cross section, compared with exquisitely thin Clovis points) and frequently bi-pointed.

Nowhere in Asia did Stanford and Bradley find the ancestor of the Clovis point. They reasoned that if the first immigrants were Asian, they must have brought with them their inset-microblade manufacturing process, in which case there must exist evidence of a transition to Clovis technology. So far, however, nothing resembling an intermediate form between inset microblades and a knapped biface has been found in North America.


Stuck at a dead end, Stanford and Bradley took up a fresh trail. The roots of Clovis, they reasoned, must lie in the Paleolithic Old World outside of Asia. They took up the search for a parent technology that specialized in making thin, flat bifacial projectile points, knives and other biface implements, and other artifacts of stone and bone similar to those of the Clovis culture. They found only one Paleolithic culture whose technology met their criteria, the Solutrean people. Named for the French town of Solutr�, the culture spread across much of France and the Spanish Peninsula. They were highly efficient hunters. Full bellies gave them leisure time, which they used to decorate the walls of their caves with fabulous surrealistic paintings of bison and horses and ibex that continue to awe us today. They were carvers, too, for art's sake.

"They had the only upper-Paleolithic biface technology going in Western Europe," Stanford points out. They were the first to heat-treat flint, and the first to use pressure flaking--removing flakes by pressing with a hardwood or antler tool, rather than by striking with another stone. "In northern Spain, their technology produced biface projectile points with concave bases that are basally thinned," he notes, not bothering to say he could just as well be describing Clovis points. The pressure flakes Solutrean knappers removed are so long it's almost a fluting technique--"almost," he's careful to say, but not quite.

The parallels between Solutrean and Clovis flintknapping techniques seem endless. The core technology, "the way they were knocking off big blades and setting up their core platforms," he explains, "is very similar to the Clovis technique, if not identical." They perfected the outre pass� --overshot--flaking technique later seen in Clovis, which removes a flake across the entire face of the tool from margin to margin. It's a complicated procedure, he emphasizes, that has to be set up and steps followed precisely in order to detach regular flakes predictably. The Solutreans set up platforms and followed the technique through to the end, exactly as we see in Clovis. "No one else in the world does that," Stanford insists. "There is very little in Clovis--in fact, nothing--that is not found in Solutrean technology," he declares.

Archaeologist Kenneth Tankersley of Kent State University seconds Stanford and Bradley's opinion: "There are only two places in the world and two times that this technology appears--Solutrean and Clovis."

On and on the similarities pile up. We find carved tablets in Clovis sites remarkably similar to Solutrean specimens. Both cultures cached toolstone and finished implements. Stanford and Bradley know of about 20 instances of caches at Solutrean sites; in North America, by comparison, according to Stanford, "we're up to about nine or ten." Just like Clovis knappers, Solutreans used flakes detached by outre pass� to make scrapers and knives. Clovis bone projectile points bear an uncanny resemblance to ones made by Solutreans. When French archaeologists saw the cast of a wrench used by Clovis craftsmen at the Murray Springs site in Arizona to straighten spear shafts, they declared it remarkably similar to one found at a Solutrean site.

Proof that Solutreans were also mariners was in the discovery in 1992 of Le Cosquer cave near Marseilles by diver Henri Cosquer. Among the rock art figures are depictions of seals impaled by harpoons as well as flounder and halibut - deep-sea fish! Clearly Solutreans learned how to exploit marine resources, possibly in hide boats made from mammoth ribs. At some stage either by accident or on purpose, they caught the northern Equatorial current and favourable trade winds, to find themselves in the heart of a magnificent Archipelago of uninhabited islands. Here they flourished, discovering new plants, animals in abundance and minerals. These people have been called the Clovis hunters in America.

Dr Stanford and Dr Bradley point out the discoveries in genetics by researchers at Emory University and the Universities of Rome and Hamburg. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited exclusively from the mother, normally contains four markers called haplogroups, labeled A, B, C, and D. These four are shared by 95 percent of Native Americans. Recently, however, the genetics team identified a fifth haplogroup, called X, which is present in about 20,000 Native Americans and has also been found in several pre-Columbian populations. A most interesting fact is that haplogroup X is also present in European populations but absent from Asians. The geneticists' research suggests the marker appears to have arrived in the Americas 12,000 to 34,000 years ago, not from Asia, but from Europe.

As well as the Caucasian Marker X in North America, the Araucanians of Chile also have significant Paleolithic Caucasian genes in them, most likely arriving from Spain between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago. It is common for them to have curly reddish brown hair and green eyes.

The red haired Caucasian Paracas mummies of Peru is also proof that Caucasians were part of the indigenous culture of America. I also found that in 1892 the Easter Island scripts were deciphered by A.Carroll, M.A., M.D., but have been ignored. They are a detailed history of tribal conflict in South America, leading up to the exodus to Easter Island! They mention tribes from the ancient land of Tulapin (Turtle Island), the Eagle Clan and the Children of the sun or Ra. They were all Caucasians.

Genetic similarities between Europeans and American Indians

Archaeologists are just beginning to realize that to understand European prehistory, American prehistory must also be considered. The Solutreans of Spain are now believed to have crossed the Atlantic using the southern Equatorial current and entered the Caribbean and Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago to become known as the Clovis hunters of America. Recent genetic findings suggest that the people now known as Gaelic speaking Celts (including Irish, Welsh, Scots, Basques and Berbers) are a remnant of a group of people who also left Spain between 1,8000 and 12,000 years ago and spent 6,000 years isolated from Europe before returning, bringing the Megalithic culture to coastal Europe.

Geneticist Prof Steve Jones, who recently published a book called Y - The Descent of Man, said;

"Genetics provided more reliable clues to the distant past than language did". He and colleagues at University College, London, have spent years creating a genetic map of the Y chromosome, which is passed by males from generation to generation. The results show that the Welsh are related to the Basques of northern Spain and southern France and to native Americans. He said: "There has been much less interbreeding in Wales than you might expect. Wales and Ireland have the most homogenous group of males of anywhere in the world, from the research that's been done so far".

He said; "The Y chromosome common among Welsh males was an ancient one. Most native Americans have the same one. Surprisingly perhaps, the genetics show that the Welsh are not related to the Cornish, despite the similarity of their languages. The Cornish are in effect Anglo-Saxons who for a time used a language that was hanging around. The genes of Scottish males betrayed considerable inter-mixing with outsiders".


James Wilson and Prof David Goldstein of University College London, with colleagues at Oxford University and the University of California, found that Welsh and Irishmen are genetic blood-brothers of the Basque people.  

"The findings provide the first direct evidence of a close relationship between the people known as Celts and the Basques. The gene patterns of three races passed down through the male line are all strikingly similar, researchers concluded. Basques can trace their roots back to the Stone Age and are one of Europe's most distinct people, fiercely proud of their ancestry and traditions.

The team looked for similarities between the Y chromosomes (which are only carried by men) they sampled DNA from; 88 “Celtic fringe” individuals from Anglesey, North Wales, 146 from Ireland with Irish Gaelic surnames, and 150 Basques, revealing “remarkable' similarities. On the other hand, he and his colleagues compared Celtic and Norwegian populations and found them to be quite different.   

The Celts carried the early Y chromosome, which provides the first clear evidence of a close relationship in the paternal heritage of Basque and Celtic speaking populations. “They were statistically indistinguishable', we also noticed that there's something quite striking about the Celtic populations, and that is that there's not a lot of genetic variation on the male Y-chromosome, We conclude that both the Basques and Celts are reflecting pre-farming Europe. Somehow these people have remained in isolation from the rest of Europe up until the Bronze age where their genes begin to indicate an influx of female genes from mainland Europe" said Prof Goldstein.

The other scenario is that these people were not living in Europe, but were in the Caribbean, the East Coast of America and on islands in the Atlantic.


Barry Fell, author of 'America B.C.' is an accomplished decipherer of ancient scripts and has managed to identify a great deal of Celtic, Phoenician, Iberian, Egyptian, Berber, Libyan and Viking scripts in America, indicating that a great deal of trade contact occurred during and after the Bronze Age, but ceasing around the time of the beginning of the Roman Empire. Apparently these great ocean navigators after the destruction of Carthage, decided to withhold all information on navigating to the Americas from the Romans and by the end of the Roman Empire and the onset of the dark ages, much was forgotten about trans Atlantic navigation and the Americas.

Barry Fell has identified Ogham script in America, Ireland, Spain and Africa that goes back to at least 800BC. Early Egyptian scripts were used by the Micmac of North America right up to the arrival of Missionaries. He also identifies many early style Celtic Megalithic monuments on the east coast of America, in particular New England, New Hampshire, Vermont and Woodstock, they take the form of Dolmens, Phallic menhir, Men-a-tol, massive stone Druid's chairs, megalithic chambers, Solstice and Equinox viewing chambers and burial mounds. These all parallel similar structures in Coastal Europe, especially on the Dingle peninsular, Brittany and some sites in Spain. As usual, this work has been ignored by the Eurocentric 'No one before Columbus' fraternity.

Although Barry Fell did not go further than assert that most Celtic connections occurred around the Bronze Age. He was not aware of the more ancient genetic connections the Celts had with the proto-American Indians. With further studies done, more accurate dating of the Dolmens and other megalithic monuments will possibly show that some American megaliths may actually predate the arrival of Celts on the Dingle peninsular in Ireland, indicating that the Caribbean and America was the original homeland of the Celts.

Giant stone shark in the Bahamas created in a similar way to the white horse of England and even the Nazca images,

suggesting a distant cultural connection between these separate groups of laterally thinking people that created images only apparent from the air - supposedly for the spirits in the heavens to view - in effect a gift to the gods.


New England's Celtic Place Names

From; America B.C. by Barry Fell

“I was surprised to find many Amerindian place names had somehow survived the onslaught of colonists, rivers and geographical features, it would seem, tend to keep their old names despite the invasions of foreign conquerors.

Modern Gaelic preserves many spelled letters that are no longer pronounced, but when pronounced in the ancient Gaulish or ancestral tongue of the Celts and Basques, one finds a striking similarity to the Algonquian language.

For example; the Algonquian word for ‘one who takes small fish' is Amoskeag. In Gaelic Ammo-iasgag means ‘small fish stream'.

In Algonquian  Ammonoosuc   means ‘small fishing river' and in Gaelic, Am-min-a-sugh means; ‘small river for taking out fish'.

In Algonquian Coos and cohas mean ‘pine tree' and in Gaelic, ghiuthas means ‘pine tree'.

Merrimack River in Algonquian means ‘deep fishing'. In Gaelic Mor-riomach means ‘of great depth'.

Kaskaashadi another Algonquian name for the Merrimack River sounds similar to Guisgesiadi, which in Gaelic means ‘slow flowing waters'

Nashaway River in Algonquian means ‘land between' and in Gaelic naisguir means ‘land connecting'.

Piscataqua River means ‘white stone' and in Gaelic, Pioscatacua means ‘pieces of snow white stone'.

Seminenal River means ‘grains of rock', which in Gaelic is; semenaill  

Quechee matches the Gaelic work Quithe meaning pit or chasm.

Ottauquechee River flows through a 162 feet deep gorge is similar to the Gaelic word Otha-Cuithe which means; ‘waters of the gorge'.

Cabassauk River in Algonquian means place of Sturgeon. The Sturgeon fish have unfortunately fallen victim to environmental degradation. Similar to Gaelic Cabach-sugh.

Attilah means blueberries and in Gaelic Aiteal means juniper berries.

Munt means people and in Gaelic muintear means people.

Monad means mountain and in Gaelic monadh means mountain.

The suffix - nock is used in New England to denote hills and mountains. Cnoc in Gaelic means hill or rocky outcrop.

Wadjak means on top, in Gaelic the word is uachdar.

Monomonock Lake means 'island lookout place' and in Gaelic Moine-managh-ach 'means boggy lookout place'.

Pontanipo Pond means cold water and in Gaelic Punntaine-pol means ‘numbingly cold pool'

Natukko means cleared place (land) and in Gaelic Neo-tugha means not covered (by vegetation).

Asquam Lake means ‘pleasant watering place' and in Gaelic Uisge-amail means ‘seasonable waters'.

These names which have stuck, through many changes over the past 300 years, are not names left by Bronze Age European traders who have sporadicly visitored America. These are names given to these places by the indigenous Amerindians. As the Gaelic language is unrelated to any Indo-European languages, this can mean only one thing - that the Gaelic language was the original mother tongue of many Amerindians. It stands to reason that anyone speaking Gaelic related languages in Europe were originally from America. The native name of Brittany in France is Armorica, another big hint as to their origins.


Stonehenge construction in Southwestern England, 2,900 B.C. is very similar to constructions in South America

of the same vintage. Photo, Maxine Marsh

Anasazi cup, man and spirals compared to spirals on a rock marking the entrance to a Celtic tomb.

More early Celtic designs compared to an Anasazi design

Anasazi Gazelles, compared to a Celtic petroglyph

Here are a few examples of Amerindians; Shoshone, Mohave, Crow, Crow and Zuni, showing that the Boundaries between people on the either side of the Atlantic is not as great as some would like to make out.


Oldest Known North American Mummy From Enigma - 05/15/96

The "discovery" of the oldest known mummy in North America. The mummy, named the Spirit Cave man, was found on the shelves of the Nevada State Museum. Discovered in Nevada in 1940 it was originally thought to be 2000 years old. Recent radiocarbon dating has pushed its age back to 9,400 years (7,400 BC).

The most intriguing facts is that the mummy was wearing moccasins and shrouds of woven marsh plants. The weave of the shrouds indicates that it was made on a loom. If these findings turn out to be true it would mean that the there were people in North America more than 9,000 years ago with the knowledge and technology to weave cloths on looms. Such a level of sophistication again pushes back the dates of early civilization and should makes us question some long held assumptions about the primitiveness of ancient people. DNA and other tests are being undertaken.


Another genetic marker indicating that Caucasians were in America are the Araucanians of Chile. They have significant Paleolithic Caucasian genes in them. They are in effect a relic of the people of Atlantis.

Other studies show that Mayans, Incas and Auracanians are all virtually 100% group O, with 5-20% of the population being rhesus negative. this was the blood of the original Europeans, traditionally called the blood of royalty (blue blood) and stems from Cro Magnon man. The races that possess this blood are races of the Americas, the Canary Islands, the Basques, Celts, as well as some Polynesians.

6,000 years ago there are many indications that there was a terrible calamity. It is believed sea levels rose to two metres above their present levels. Genetic bottlenecks from this time suggest there were many large populations reduced to small numbers all over the world. There appears to have been an exodus from East Asia to America at this time as well as an Exodus from America to Europe.When the Rhesus positive Asians arrived in America 6,000 years ago, they inevitably interbred with the Rhesus negative Red Heads. This would have proved disasterous, for the already decimated population of Red Heads, as a rhesus negative mother who gives birth to a rhesus positive baby develops antibodies against rhesus positive blood and is then unable to succesfully have any more children without the help of modern medicine. Not only this, but blue eyes, blonde and red hair are all recessive genes and so the European heritage of American Indians was masked by the genes of the new comers. One dominant genetic trait reveals the Cro Magnon man heritage is hidden in American Indians is their tallness. Gigantism, common in America is also a genetic throwback to a time that once was, when 'size did matter' for survival, when hunting mammoths and sabre toothed tigers was a part and parcel of daily activities.

Age of the White Haired Giants

Aztec and Toltec history identifies that 17,608 years ago was the beginning of "The Age of the First Sun" or the "Age of White Haired Giants", or in Inca history - the Age of Viracochas - the “White and Bearded Gods”. According to European archaeology, Cro Magnon man was quite tall, had pale skin, blonde hair and was capable of growing beards. It sounds to me like cultures on either side of the Atlantic are describing the same breed of man.

Archaeological finds in America appear to confirm the existence of very tall people being the base layer of the Native American cultures.

A skeleton estimated as being 10,000 years old was found in the ‘tomb of Palli Aike' in Tierra del Fuego in 1969-70 and has been identified as Cro-Magnon, which indicates that these people also spread to South America.

In the book, The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, author John Haywood describes; "very large" bones in stone graves found in Williamson County, Tennessee, in 1821. In White County, Tennessee, an "ancient fortification" contained skeletons of gigantic stature averaging at least 7 feet in length.

In February and June of 1931, large skeletons were found in the Humboldt lake bed near Lovelock, Nevada. The first of these two skeletons found measured 8 1/2 feet tall and appeared to have been wrapped in a gum-covered fabric similar to the Egyptian manner. The second skeleton was almost 10 feet long.(Review - Miner, June 19, 1931).

George W. Hill, M.D., dug out a skeleton "of unusual size" in a mound of Ashland County, Ohio. In 1879, a nine-foot, eight-inch skeleton was excavated from a mound near Brewersville, Indiana(Indianapolis News, Nov 10, 1975)

In 1875 workmen were constructing a bridge near the mouth of Paw Paw Creek at Rivesville. While digging through heavy clay soil they were astonished to uncover three giant skeletons strands of reddish hair clinging to the skulls. A local doctor was called to examine the remains and was able ascertain after careful measurement, the skeletons had supported people approximately 8 feet tall.

Just as black haired Greeks had an earlier past of taller blonde and red haired people (the Titans), so did the Amerindians.

The Golden Age

13,600 years ago In Aztec legends, was the beginning of the Age of the Second Sun - the “Golden Age” and is remembered in Incan legends as the “Age of Giants”. This Age lasted 4,010 years, it began with the Biblical and Sumerian Great Flood, followed by the Deluge and ended with a calamity involving the Wind Serpent. The demise of Atlantis was somewhere in the middle of this.

European legends from Ireland, Brittany, Spain and North Africa and Egypt talk of their legendary homeland being on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, and in some legends it was called Atlantis.

This is how Central Americans remembered the people of Atlantis - interesting guns and breastplate they carry.

This is not the image archaeologists would have us believe for the Clovis hunter-gatherers from 11,500 years ago.

This map shows the position of the coastline during the height of the last ice age about 18,000 years ago. Seafloor topography clearly reveals the island of Atlantis in the Mid Atlantic. This area was pushed up to the ocean surface during the height of the last ice age as a reaction to the weight of over 3 km of ice on the poles, which depressed the crust in the Polar regions and caused weak areas of the the crust in mid lattitudes to distend outwards as the planet attempted to find an equilibrium. This effect would not be noticed on the continents as their thickness of 30 km or more would resist distortion, but the7-10km thin oceanic floors, especially the Mid Atlantic ridge where a seam of magma reaches the surface, would display the greatest amount of distortion, forcing the seafloor to rise a correspondingly similar distance to the depression at the poles - that is 2-3km. Today we are likely to witness a similar situation with Iceland - another island on the mid Atlantic ridge. As global warming continues to melt the ice at the poles, Iceland too, risks a sudden collapse under the surface of the ocean.

The seafloor around the Azores looks very much like the description of Atlantis - the island possibly as it was 11,500 years ago. The home of the Na Dene/Gaelic language and what are now known as Berber/Basque/Celtic genes, now found in pockets around the world from the Indus region to Easter Island. This is the S.E. corner of the much larger island depicted in the above map. Plato described Atlantis as having a flat plain surrounded by mountains to the North. Two of the mountains depicted here are now giant calderas on the seafloor, possibly created in the final cataclysm as Atlantis was destroyed. The two arrows point to two rectangles marked on the marine chart from which this map was taken. These contours do not look natural and should be further investigated.

The following is an excerpt from Cedric Leonard's webpage Quest for Atlantis;

In 1948 geologist discovered "beachlike terraces" parallel to the Mid Atlantic ridge, beneath two miles of ocean water. Ewing cautiously observed: "It is, of course, extremely radical speculation to identify these level stretches more than two miles below the sea surface as former beaches. Such a theory would require the obvious but almost incredible conclusion that this land has subsided two miles or else the sea has risen by that amount". However, subsequent expeditions only strengthened the "incredible.

According to Ewing, long flat stretches were detected 2 to 20 miles wide and hundreds of miles long. These beach-like areas were always covered with thick sediments, indicating a long period of deposition, although occasionally separated by mountainous "higher ground" exhibiting no such sediments. (The Central Highland of the Ridge occasionally approaches four-fifths of a mile from the sea surface.) Ewing observed that deep ocean basins never have thick sediments--which are the result of surf action and river deposition--it is actually shorelines that display thick sediments. More evidence of just how recently such a landmass existed turned up during an expedition the following year.

The follow-up expedition in 1949 turned up numerous core samples from these terraces. These cores contained two different strata of beach sand: the older estimated to be 225,000-325,000 years of age, and the younger 20,000-100,000 years old (Ewing, 1949). Another significant fact is that the deposits were found to be well-sorted by surf action into the usual pattern of shoreline beaches familiar to geologists (Miller & Scholten, 1966). His conclusion was that: "Sometime in the distant past this sand found deep beneath the ocean must have been located on a beach, at or near the surface of the sea" (Ewing, 1949)

Still another oceanographic expedition, Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition of 1947-1948, yielded core samples containing sand from the Romache Deep along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Dr. Otto Mellis did not publish these findings until ten years later (Mellis, 1958). Other geologists have guardedly admitted that the Azore Islands (Central Atlantic) are composed chiefly of continental material, some even conceding that there might be enough continental material (sial) in the mid-Atlantic to make up a landmass the size of Spain (de Camp, 1970).

The six levels of terraces discovered by the Woods Hole expeditions suggest that the Atlantic island was constantly changing shape - as well as being reduced in size - before it finally disappeared at the end of the Ice Age. Such geological changes would have been catastrophic to any life living on such a landmass: the unhappy result of the constant violence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. If the Atlantic landmass happened to be inhabited by humans, these violent disturbances could well have been the cause of the four Cro-Magnon "invasions". These well documented invasions impacted the western shores of North Africa and Europe (including Great Britain and other Atlantic islands) and occurred during a time frame of 35,000-12,000 years ago (the latter date corresponding closely to the date given by Plato for the demise of Atlantis).

It is no coincidence that many Central American place names are also derived from the fabled city of Atlantis. Aztlan, Azatlan, Atlanta, Tlan, Tolan, Tulan, and Tenochtitlan are all linguistically similar.

The people of these cities would most likely have been descendants of the survivors of Atlantis. The Grand Bahama Banks - a shallow area of sea that 10,000 years ago would have been an island as big as Ireland and appears to have had trading ports around its perimeter. So far 60 sites have been found exhibiting remnants of buildings and ring structures. A Hexagonally tiled floor has been uncovered as well as numerous stone structures. The 500metre long Bimini Road is most likely a wharf as it juts out at right angles to the beach line and has a sharacteristic curve at the end which we still see in wharves in old English ports.There appear to be numerous sites on the southern side of the Bahama banks, adjacent to Cuba, which also has many underwater ruins along its northern shore, including stone Quarries in 10-20 metres of water.

When comparing Platos story to this area it all fitted except for talk of horses and elephants in the city. I then looked up mammal extinctions in North America, to find that Mastodons and horses became extinct approximately 11,000 years ago! This correlates perfectly with the Clovis hunters and the time of Atlantis.

Archaeological evidence shows that the Clovis people multiplied and spread across North America from the Gulf of Mexico about 13,000 years ago. This period abruptly ended with the demise of the megafauna of North America, along with end of the Clovis people and Atlantis 11,600years ago. The comet impact in North America around this time - as evidenced by the 500,000 craters known as the Carolina Bays (see Catastrophes Chapter) could possibly have been the cause of this abrupt end to an Era in America.

500,000 of these craters litter SE America in a variety of soil, sand and silt types, all filled with sediment to the same degree, all of the same age, all with a crater rim on the S.E side only, all elongated N.W. to S.E., all with a layer of blue clay devoid of pollen and organic matter below the silt. Bullets of water impacting the ground from a disintegrating comet is the only explanation. The main body or head of the comet would have landed in the Atlantic Ocean. Geologists believe the resultant Tsunami could have been as much as 500m high and travelling at over 700 miles an hour.

The green area is presently underwater but most of it would have been exposed 8,000-12,000 years ago when sea levels were much lower.

The Grande Bahama Bank would have been a large island up until about 6,000 years ago.

Areas that are possiblly old city sites 8,000 years ago are marked here.

The large red spot marks the approximate position of a city recently found in approximately 700m deep water, suggesting a subsidence of the whole Cuban tectonic plate.

Gold dust common on the beaches of the Caribbean suggest remnants of the gold used to decorate the buildings in this area in ancient times. All of these sites would have evolved from survivors of the civilization of Atlantis.


Modern side scanning sonar has recently picked up what appears to be the ruins of a city on a 7sq mile plateau in 2300 feet of water, just off the edge of this shallow bay. Cuba is in a tectonically active area, with a deep oceanic trench (subduction zone) south of it. The age of these ruins are yet to be determined, the builders of these ruins are sure to have descended from the people of Atlantis.

1. Artists impression of what has been sited in 2000feet off the western end of Cuba.Image from Atlantisite.com.

2. Bimini Road. As this 500m long structure is at right angles to the old beach line it must be assumed that it was a wharf - the perfect place to stock up on provisions before hitching a ride on the Gulf Stream back to Britain, France and Spain.

Other sites of towns appear to be on the Grand Bahama Banks– a shallow area of sea that 6,000 years ago would have been an island 600x200 miles.Pottery ~6000 years old has been found amongst these ruins. So far 60 sites have been found exhibiting remnants of buildings and ring structures. A Hexagonally tiled floor, each tile, 6 foot across and 4" thick have been uncovered as well as numerous stone roads. There appears to be numerous sites on the southern side of the Bahama banks, adjacent to Cuba, which also has many underwater ruins along its northern shore, including stone Quarries in 10-20 metres of water.This period of development, starting 7,590 B.C. is remembered in Aztec legends as the beginning of the Age of the Third Sun - “The Age of the Red Haired People. These people are most likely a reformed fragment, from the survivors of Atlantis.

Ther have been many assertions that Atlantis was in: Spain, the Azores, South America, Western Africa and the Antarctic, not to mention other more outlandish suggestions that ignore a basic fact that it was outside the Pillars of Hercules (the Straits of Gibraltar) and have postulated that it was in Taiwan, Indonesia and the Black Sea. The Minoan civilization of Crete was another suggestion, but this culture is only 5,000 years old, therefore, if it does have any parallels with the ancient Atlantian culture, then it is from wayward settlers from the ancient American civilization of Atlantis.

Whether Atlantis was in the Azores or the Caribbean, products of this civilization show the greatest amount of evidence in America.

Atlantis was said to be on an island, one of 10 kingdoms that spanned a country as big as Africa and Asia together (N&S America). If these people were travelling back to Europe to fight the people of the Mediterranean, I am sure that islands of the Central Atlantic and coastal Spain would most certainly have been controlled by these people also. Even Lixus city on the West Coast of Africa was most likely active at this time too.

Use of Metals in ancient times

There is an ancient copper mine in Michigan that was used by these people and later by the Phoenicians and Berbers who exported about 500,000 tons of copper from this mine back to Europe, either via the St Lawrence River and down the Mississippi.

In the bay at the western end of Cuba, where the main city of Atlantis was meant to have been situated, the sandy beach contains minute grains of gold. 11,600 years of erosion would easily reduce sheets of gold into minute grains. People have suggested this gold, which does not come from a motherload in the area, is from gold looted from the Aztecs and Incas on a Spanish wreck in the bay. It would not be possible for a cache of gold to be reduced to such fine specks in only 300 years.

Plato also talks of Orichalcum and Gold. He says they hammered out great sheets of these metals and covered large stone structures marking the entrance to great harbours. Is it possible that such early use of metals has been hidden from archaeologists eyes? The earliest use of copper in the world was in Michigan. So far copper artefacts ~8000 years old have been found .Gold has also been found associated with ancient copper artefacts. Both Copper and Gold can be found in nature as pure nuggets, the simple process of hammering it into sheets would not have been a terribly difficult concept to grasp. I suspect that the date for the earliest use of metals will be pushed back to the time of Atlantis - 11,500BP.

Sometime after 11600years ago a god like person named Anu helped transform the primitive Sumerians into farmers. This can only be an individual representing the Anu, which are better known as the Veda of India. Then a 600 years later a group of white faced, purple clothed people with golden wings appear in the Sumerian historical records. They are seen as educators in the humanities, medicine and astronomy. These can only be individuals representing the people of Atlantis. As the cities of the Veda and the cities associated with Atlantis are all in at least 40m of water, little can be ascertained about the cultural development of these people until an actual city site is found. The cultural development of the Sumerians may give us some idea what these cultures were like.

The Age of the Red Heads

According to the Aztecs, 7,590 B.C. or 9,500 years ago was the beginning of the Age of the Third Sun also called the“Age of the Red Haired People.
These people were the survivors of the second age who had come by ship from the east to the New World, settling in the area he called Botonchan; they encountered there giants who also survived the second age, and became enslaved by them.

Not only did the Age of Red heads end in America and Begin in Europe at this time, but it also marks the massive genetic bottleneck in East Asia when the Thais, Tibetans, Tlingit, Haida and Hawaiians dispersed from the Taiwanese people.

Many people seem to think that Celts influenced American culture and ancient petroglyphs and megalithic monuments may seem to suggest this, but what one is seeing here is a dispersal of culture not to America, but from America.

After the final sea level rises 6,000 years ago, wiping the Bahama Banks clean of any civilization, there was a major shift in world populations. Remnants of this culture of Red Heads went their separate ways.The Celts took the Gulf stream back to their ancestral homeland of Europe, wheras the Anasazi, Hopi, Zuni, Algonquian and Auracano, just to name a few remained in mainland America and began to mix with incoming Asians who had suffered a similar catastrophe of Sea level rises on the East Asian coastline.

There are also suggestions that the Celts were in New Zealand before the Maori. This is not strictly true, they too along with the Red Heads of Rapa nui were also fragments of the Age of the Red Heads in America.

The Picts of Scotland were probably from a similar tribe to the the Tattooed Red Heads of the Pacific.

This design is from a plate from Panama, with the cross and swirls, it would not look out of place in a museum on ancient Celtic art. It would also not be out of place in a book on Maori art.The bird motif is beginning to look like a Taniwha. The turtle is a from Central America, and signifies the importance of the turtle in many of these ancient cultures, including Rapa nui.


Maps of The Ancient Sea Kings

It appears from various scources of evidence that the Red Heads were the major population in America and the Caribbean up to about 6,000 years ago. We know from their megalithic monuments that they were keenly interested in Astronomy, not just for determining the seasons, but for navigation and mapping. It therefore stands to reason that they were the people responsible for mapping the coastline of South America and the Antarctic during a particularly warm perion of the earths history, between 7,000 and 5,500 years ago. Core sampling aroun the Antarctica shows that there was very little sea ice during this time, making it possible for them to map a coastlinewhich is now under more than 1km of ice.

This global meltdown would have caused a rapid ries in sea levels, ultimately engulfing the seafaring towns of the world. Isostatic rebalancing as the load of ice was released from the poles would have caused major earthquakes, which in turn would have produced tsunamis, devastating coastal civilizations around the world. As a result there remains very little evidence of these once great civilizations now underwater. Their buildings have been levelled in places such as the Bahamas and only rare snippets of information survive such as the map below, to prove their seafaring prowess.


On the Front of Professor charles Hapgood's book "Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings" (Turnstone books, London 1979,) is the famous Piri Reis Map, drawn on a gazelle skin. It was found by a group of historians in 1929.

Research showed that it was a genuine document drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century. 
His passion was cartography. His high rank within the Turkish navy allowed him to have privileged access to the Imperial Library of Constantinople.
The Turkish admiral admits in a series of notes on the map that he compiled and copied the data from a large number of ource maps, some of which dated back to the fourth century BC or earlier.


1.The map on the left is by Piri Reis, who admitted that the map is a compilation of a number of maps. The coastline depicts the coast of Antarctica to the south, the coastline of South america to the West and the coast of West Africa on the Eastern side of the map.According to Charles Hapgood, Author of Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, the position of the coastline correlates very closely to the distortion created by spherical projection centred on Alexandria, Egypt. Interestingly the island marked on the North Eastern part of the map with its bays, correlates very closely with Taiwan.It appears that Piri Reis also thought that there was only one ocean and confused the western seaboard of the Atlantic with the western seaboard of the Pacific.A compilation map such as this could well have been what misled Chistopher Columbus into thinking that by crossing the Atlantic he could get to the East Indies.

2. The map on the right is by Oronteus Finaeus and was drawn in 1532. It has been placed on the world map at too large a scale, showing it to be too close to Africa and South America, this also suggests that Antarctica is a map from an earlier source. South America and Africa are drawn less accurately and show the world without the Pacific Ocean, thereby making the size of the world too small for the Antarctic of correct scale. This is the Map that Captain Cook had when he went in search of the Great Southern Land. Interestingly this map depicts the Antarctic coastline without ice very accurately. It shows bays that are still under the ice today. The mountain ranges are accurate and rivers marked entering the Ross Sea are where glaciers exist today. This strongly suggests that people with accurate timepieces - albeit hour glasses were accurate to within a miniute to obtain the Lattitude and Longitude to within 90miles accuracy. It shows these people were busy mapping the world between 5,500 and 7,000 years ago when the Antarctic was free of ice.

Professor Hapgood claimed that the lower part of the map portrayed the Princess Martha Coast of Queen Maud Land, Antarctic, and the Palmer Peninsular. The geographical detail shown in the lower part of the map agrees very remarkably with the results of the seismic profile made across the top of the ice-cap by the Swedish-British Antarctic Expedition of 1949.
This indicates the coastline had been mapped before it was covered by the ice-cap, which is presently one mile thick.
Dr. Charles Hapgood, in his book, said that:
"It appears that accurate information has been passed down from people to people. It appears that the charts must have originated with a people unknown and they were passed on, perhaps by the Minoans and the Phoenicians, who were, for a thousand years and more, the greatest sailors of the ancient world. We have evidence that they were collected and studied in the great library of Alexandria (Egypt) and the compilations of them were made by the geographers who worked there.
Piri Reis had probably come into possession of charts once located in the Library of Alexandria, the well-known most important library of the ancient times.
According to Hapgood's reconstruction, copies of these documents and some of the original source charts were transferred to other centers of learning, and among them to Constantinople. Then in 1204, year of the fourth crusade, when the Venetians entered Constantinople, those maps begun to circulate among the European sailors.

In fact Piri Reis himself admitted he based his map on way older charts; and those older charts had been used as sources by others who have drawn different maps still of great precision.
Impressive is the "Dulcert's Portolano", year 1339, where the latitude of Europe and North Africa is perfect, and the longitudinal coordinates of the Mediterranean and of the Black sea are approximated of half degree.
An even more amazing chart is the "Zeno's chart", year 1380. It shows a big area in the north, going up to Greenland; Its precision is flabbergasting. "It's impossible" says Hapgood "that someone in the fourteenth century could have found the exact latitudes of these places, not to mention the precision of the longitudes..."
Another amazing chart is the one drawn by the Turkish Hadji Ahmed, year 1559, in which he shows a land strip, about 1600 Km. wide, that joins Alaska and Siberia. Such a natural bridge has been covered by water for almost 10,000 years.
Oronteus Fineus was another one who drew a map of incredible precision. He too represented the Antarctic with no ice-cap, year 1532.
There are maps showing Greenland as two separate islands, as it was confirmed by a polar French expedition which found out that there is an ice cap quite thick joining what it is actually two islands.
Not only this but most of the old Greenland maps show the coastline without ice and they depict rivers in the valleys, not glaciers, suggesting this area was mapped during a warmer period of the Earth's history.

As well as maps of the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines, he found a copy of a map carved on a rock column in China, from 1137. It showed the same high level of technology of the other western charts, the same grid method, the same use of spheroid trigonometry. It has so many common points with the western ones that it makes one think that there had to be a common source:
They seem to be pieces of a very ancient world wide map, drawn by unknown people who were able to use mathematics, trigonometry and the most baffling of all, had acess to accurate timekeeping equipment.
When human beings were supposed to live in a primitive manner, someone "put on paper" the whole geography of the earth. And this common knowledge somehow fell into pieces, then gathered here and there by several people, who had lost the technical knowledge, so just copied what they could find in libraries, bazaars, markets and all kind of places.
This evidence of a lost technology suggested by these ancient maps will support and give credence to many of the other hypotheses that have been brought forward of a lost civilization in remote times. Scholars have been able to dismiss most of those evidences as mere myth, but here we have evidence that cannot be dismissed. The evidence requires that all the other evidences that have been brought forward in the past should be re-examined with an open mind."

Graham Hancock in his book Underworld, also points out that the Island of Hy Brasil marked on many of these ancient maps lies directly on top of Porcupine Banks a shallow area that would have been an island during the last ice age. He also points out that ancient maps of India and the Maldives depict the coastline as it was 15-20,000 years ago when sea levels were approximately 80m lower.

The following information indicates that conditions were favourable for mapping both Greenland and the Antarctica without ice, from 7,000 to 5,500 years ago, in other words during the Age of the Red Heads in America. As it is known from numerous archaeological sites around the Atlantic and in especially in America around areas such as the Yucatan, Lake Titicaca and Nevada, that these people were avid astronomers, it stands to reason that it was these native Americans were the great mappers of the world.

Antarctic ice sheet key to sudden sea level rise

Researchers show Antarctic ice sheets may not be as stable as previously thought

by Janet Wong


March 28, 2002 -- Physicists from Canada, the United States and Britain have concluded that a massive and unusually abrupt rise in sea level about 14,000 years ago was caused by the partial collapse of ice sheets in Antarctica, solving a mystery scientists have been heatedly debating for more than a decade.


Near the end of the last Ice Age, the Earth's sea level abruptly rose over 20 metres - four times faster than usual for that time period and at least 20 times faster than sea levels are rising now, report geophysicists Jerry Mitrovica of the University of Toronto, Peter Clark of Oregon State University , Glenn Milne of the University of Durham in the U.K. and Mark Tamisiea, a post-doctoral fellow at U of T, in the March 29 issue of Science .


The cause of this event - called the global meltwater pulse 1A, first identified in 1989 - has been unknown until now. The scientists say their research not only pinpoints the source of the meltwater pulse as coming from West Antarctica. It also makes the case that significant climatic events can occur very rapidly and unpredictably.


Antarctic mud reveals ancient evidence of global climate change  By Mark Shwartz


In 1998, ODP scientists extracted a 150-foot-long sediment core from the muddy bottom of the Palmer Deep - a submerged section of the continental shelf along the west Antarctic Peninsula about 3,000 feet below sea level. The sediment sample was loaded with the shells of microscopic creatures called diatoms dating back some 10,000 years to the beginning of the Holocene - the most recent geologic epoch.


"The Antarctic Peninsula is an ideal region to investigate climate change at decadal to millennial time scales due to its location in one of the Earth's most dynamic climate systems," noted Dunbar. "The ODP sample gives us the first continuous, high-resolution Holocene sediment record from the Antarctic continental margin."


The sediment sample revealed higher concentrations of diatom shells during the mid-Holocene, roughly 5,500 to 7,000 years ago, which indicates that the waters surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula were more biologically productive then. According to Dunbar, higher productivity suggests that sea ice was less abundant during the mid-Holocene - a further indication that temperatures were higher.


"We think it was quite a bit warmer then," he observed, noting that geochemical analysis of the sediment also revealed higher levels of nitrogen during the mid-Holocene. "Warmer temperatures appear to have produced freshwater streams that fed nitrogen and other nutrients into coastal waters," he explained.

During this warm period, sea levels rose from approximately 20m below the present sea level to approximately 1.7m higher than present day levels.


Legends around the Caribbean tell of a heavy rain falling for many days and many were drowned. It was this deluge that separated their islands from the mainland.

Little by little subsequent tempests submerged the lands of the Bahamas, separating the people from one another by arms of the sea.

These legends most likely tell of the polar meltdown around 6,000 years ago described above, separating and isolating the red heads living on what is now the Bahaman banks. Thus giving rise to the Anasazi and Celts.

Next was the Age of the Black Haired people, which according to Aztec and Toltec history began 5,514years ago, and was called the Age of the Fourth Sun. This was the time of arrival of the East Asian civilization into America, via the Kuroshio current from submerged cities North and South of Taiwan. Genetics indicates that the actual genetic bottleneck (or ocean voyage) occurred 6,000 years ago. The peace loving Kukul Khan (Kukulcan)- the Mayan culture hero was obviously Asian.

Other Civilizations around the time of Atlantis

9,500 year old City Found Underwater off India

Discovery in Bay of Cambay Will Force Western Archaeologists to Rewrite History

Marine scientists in India, have discovered archaeological remains of a lost city 36 metres (120 feet) underwater in the Gulf of Cambay off the western coast of India. Carbon dating indicates that the city is 9,500 years old.

According to the BBC's Tom Housden, reporting on the Cambay find:

The vast city which is five miles long and two miles wide. It is believed to predate the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5,000 years. The site was discovered by chance last year by oceanographers from India's National Institute of Ocean Technology, who were conducting a survey of pollution. Using sidescan sonar, which sends a beam of sound waves down to the bottom of the ocean, they identified huge geometrical structures at a depth of 120 feet. Debris recovered from the site, including construction material, pottery, sections of walls, beads, sculpture, and human bones and teeth has been carbon dated and found to be nearly 9,500 years old (BBC article).

Several reports confirm this estimate. Housden added, "The whole model of the origins of civilisation will have to be remade from scratch."

Unheard-of Scope of Cambay Ruins

The BBC article tells us that the remains of this ancient city stand upon "enormous foundations." Marine archaeologists discovered them with a technology known as "sub-bottom profiling." in 130 feet of water, they recieved sonar images of square and rectangular shapes with 90-degree angles off the northwestern coast of India in the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay). The Indian Minister of Science and Technology ordered that the site be dredged. What was found has surprised archaeologists around the world"

The Find Includes Human Remains

Linda Moulton Howe, who investigates occurrences of this type worldwide, interviewed Michael Cremo about this new discovery. Cremo is a researcher and author of the book Forbidden Archaeology. Cremo, Howe said, has visited India and attended local meetings about the Cambay site.

"Within the past few months," Cremo told her, "the engineers began some dredging operations there and they pulled up human fossil bones, fossil wood, stone tools, pieces of pottery, and many other things that indicated that it indeed was a human habitation site that they had. And they were able to do more intensive sonar work there and were able to identify more structures. They appeared to have been laid out on the bank of a river that had been flowing from the Indian subcontinent out into that area."

According to Howe:

Even if we don't know what the cultural background of the people is, if it does happen to be a city that is 9500 years old, that is older than the Sumerian civilization by several thousand years. It is older than the Egyptian, older than the Chinese. So it would radically affect our whole picture of the development of urban civilization on this planet.

Now, if it further happens that additional research is able to identify the culture of the people who lived in that city that's now underwater. If it turns out they are a Vedic people, which I think is quite probable given the location of this off the coast of India, I think that would radically change the whole picture of Indian history which has basically been written by Western archaeologists.

It has often been said that the Hindu religion is one of the most ancient religions of the world, it is also said that the English language has it's origins in India, now we know why.

From previous chapters we learnt that the Anu were a people from which the Ainu and Veda are descended from. In Biblical records, Lord Anu was the culture bringer to the Sumerians. According to Hebrew texts, from which the bible was written, occurred 10,000 years ago. In other words, knowledgeable survivors of the civilizations of India, decided to resurrect their civilization amongst the Sumerian tribesmen. This began western civilization as we know it in the history books. According to Christian O'Brien, in his book "The Genius of the Few" The great 'Lord Anu' decided to 'plant a garden in Eden' which was a fertile valley overlooking fertile plains in Lebanon where a village named Ehdin still exists. Then 600 years later the "Shining ones" - white faced, purple robed people with gold wings came and gave them incredible scientific knowledge. These people were obviously survivors of the pan Atlantic culture (Cro Magnon man) that also gave rise to the purple robed, red haired Phoenicians, the blue robed copper culture of the Tuaregs, the seafaring Berbers, Celts, Basques, Toltecs, Anasazi and Araucano. It would only be natural, that the survivors of the global catastrophe that occured 11,600 years ago, regardless of their origins, would have pooled together their recources to start anew.

In the Hebrew chronicles of Enoch it says; "I awoke to find in my room, two very tall men, different from any that I have seen in the lowlands. Their faces shone like the Sun and their eyes burned like lamps; and the breath from their mouths was like smoke (tobacco or hashish). Their clothes were remarkeable - being purplish, with the appearance of feathers; and on their shoulders were things which I can only describe as 'like golden wings'.

......the men brought me to the sixth haven, and there I saw seven groups of 'Angels'. Some of these 'Angels' study the movements of the Stars, the Sun and the Moon and record the peacful order of the World. Other 'Angels' there, undertake teaching and give instruction in clear and melodious voices. Others are responsible for recording the fauna and flora in both the Highlands and the Lowlands.There are 'Angels' who record the seasons and the years, others who study the rivers and the seas, others who study the fruits of the lowlands and the plants and herbs which give nourishment to men and beasts. And there are 'Angels' who study mankind and record the behaviour of men and how they live.

 These are petroglyphs are from Nevada and California and depict the

Irish god Ogma Grian Aineac, 'meaning Ogma the Sun Faced'

who precided over the occult  and was the inventor of Ogam writing.

The Ogam symbols in his left hand spell his name 'Ogam'.

In his right hand is a druids wand. From; America B.C. by Barry Fell.


Ogam writing is found on many megalithic monuments in America and has often been passed off as marks from ploughs, despite the fact that such inscriptions are on walls of tombs. Their answer to this is that early settlers must have built these 'bunkers' out of rocks in the field after repeated ploughing to cause such a multitude of scratches. Once again the intelligence of so called scientists is called into question.

It appears that Cro Magnon man was much more than a dirty unshaven bloodthirsty barbaric troglodite who hunted animals and dragged women around by the hair. It seems that there was once a highly sophistocated civilization that influenced many cultures around the world before it was destroyed by the hand of nature. Ogam writing, often assumed to be idle scratches in rock was their writing system. It was a simple method easily taught using the fingers. This writing system is based on sounds and has no connection to the modern alphabet. Although mainstream scientists deny that this writing system was around before 1000BC, bone tools from 20,000 years ago have been found with grooves cut in them similar to ogam writing. We should keep our minds and eyes open to the meaning of ancient inscriptions, they may teach us a lot about our ancestors.

Pages extracted from America B.C. by Barry Fell. Other styles of writing are quite common in America, suggesting a thriving trans Atlantic trade during the Bronze Age.

Micmac writing, once thought to be the brainchild of an over zealous missionary, turns out to be closely related to an ancient Egyptian script that was unknown by westerners, let alone - deciphered, until more recent times.


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Who Built New England’s Megalithic Monuments?

By Paul Tudor Angel

In “The Mysterious Megaliths of New England,” (in the last issue of PVQ) we discussed the ancient megalithic constructions found throughout New England (most notably at Mystery Hill, near North Salem, New Hampshire) and their striking resemblance to those found in Europe. In this issue we discuss the thousands of mysterious inscriptions that have been found and are continuing to be found from New England to California and the clues these writings have given us about the builders of the megalithic calendar sites of the American Northeast.

For generations, farmers and explorers have been finding what they assumed were random incisions on stones throughout the Northeast United States. Very little was thought of the odd rocks until archeologist and language specialist Barry Fell, the man singularly responsible for bringing the importance of these scratches to national attention in his monumental work America, B.C., recognized they were ancient writings and actually deciphered one of these inscriptions in 1967.

This stone, found at what has come to be known as the Mystery Hill megalithic complex, bore an inscription in what Fell determined was the vowelless style of Keltic Iberian ogam. Much to Fell’s astonishment, the writing turned out to be a temple dedication to the Phoenician Sun god Baal. Another nearby Keltic ogam inscription was deciphered as reading “Dedicated to Bel,” Bel being the Keltic god of the Sun and one and the same with the Phoenician god Baal. The ogam-inscribed flagstone was found near an underground stone chamber aligned to the sunrise of May 1—the sacred day of Bel.

Kelts, of course, are still around today, known as Irishmen, Scots, Welshmen, and others. The descendants of the ancient Phoenicians are also around, and are today called Palestinians.

Keltic Sun-wheel motifs, associated with ancient solar observatories throughout Europe, were also found at the Mystery Hill site and other megalithic sites in New England.

Further, Fell and others have found “eye of Bel” engravings on glacial erratics and inside solar chambers across northern New England that are clearly related to European examples of the same motif.

After this epigraphic breakthrough, information began pouring in. People now were convinced the incised rocks they had found on their properties were more than they had been told by skeptical “experts” for years. In fact, hundreds of ogamic inscriptions were found side by side with Phoenician inscriptions. Many of the ogam-inscribed flagstones interested people brought to Fell were found to have been grave markers, the location of the grave sites now lost due to their removal, unfortunately.

However, it seemed clear to Fell and his associates that the Kelts of the Iberian peninsula and the British Isles must have been the builders of the Mystery Hill site, judging from the similarity of the megalithic structures found there and those in Spain, Brittany, Portugal and Britain and also because it was these same Kelts who had lived side by side with the Phoenicians in ancient Iberian seafaring settlements, exchanging writing styles and languages. Further, the linguistic idiosyncrasies found beside the Keltic inscriptions at Mystery Hill appeared to be unique to a Punic style used in the period from 800 to 500 B.C.

Recent ogamic tract finds are not confined to New England. Gene Ballinger, writing and researching for the Courier newspaper of New Mexico, has stated that he has found and identified hundreds of Keltic ogam inscriptions in the rocks of the Southwest including: Keltic war god petroglyphs; mother goddess Byanu petroglyphs and petroglyphs of a Keltic water goddess. In each of the instances where the Keltic water goddess symbol was found, previously unknown, ancient hand-dug and rock-lined wells were found. Ballinger has also located many more ogamic inscriptions—one a deeply incised, five-foot tract in the boulders of southwestern New Mexico.1

Gloria Farley, an ardent archeologist and explorer, has found countless examples of what seem to be Keltic ogamic inscriptions along the Cimarron River in Arkansas and more in Kentucky, leading her to believe Kelts were exploring the Mississippi River valley and leaving their inscriptions along the way 1,000 years and more ago.

Now is it possible the inscriptions Fell and others have discovered are not European ogam at all, but a similar style of writing that may have developed independently in America? Fell, considered the world’s foremost expert on rock alphabet engravings before his death in 1994, claimed the odds against the American Indians developing a 12-character ogamic scriptural writing style just like its Bronze Age Iberian counterpart were about 430 million to one.2 And the chance the 17-letter ogamic alphabet found on the rocks at Monhegan, Maine was Amerindian is even more remote.

It is therefore not improbable the ancient ogamic inscriptions found on the rocks in New England were written by Iberian and Goidelic Kelts and Iberian Phoenicians. But could they have been clever forgeries?

In response to this possibility, Fell and his associates photographed any new find, and the photos clearly show the team removing hundreds of years of lichen and other plant growth from rocks they supposed might have inscriptions. If they are forgeries, they were done by someone many decades before the present, with incredible language skills, enthusiasm and knowledge of the art of the vowelless ogamic scriptural style which was lost sometime around 200 B.C. (The vowelled style took over about then.) Under the circumstances, this possibility seems remote.

And if epigrapher Barry Fell and James Whitehall of the Early Sites Research Society have accurately read several stone inscriptions they found in New England, there is additional evidence the Phoenicians were in America 2,500 years ago and trading with a thriving Keltic community here.

Several miles off the coast of Maine, near Monhegan Island and more precisely on a small, flat-topped island called Manana, Fell found an inscription in Goidelic Keltic—the Bronze Age predecessor to Irish—which has been deciphered as saying: “Ships from Phoenicia: Cargo Platform,” the Manana Island site being suitable for lading trade goods.

Further evidence of the Phoenician and Keltic willingness to brave the open seas was found in 1975. In the spring of that year a stone measuring 45 inches by 15 inches tall was deciphered by Fell and Whitehall as reading, “A proclamation of annexation. Do not deface. By this Hanno takes possession.” The stone had been discovered by colonial settlers in 1658 and was being used as a doorstop when someone realized its possible antiquity and brought it to Fell’s attention.

We do know there was a real historical figure named Hanno—a Phoenician seafarer who explored and colonized along the African coast around 500 B.C., founding seven cities and setting up several trading posts. The Greeks had copied inscriptions from the Temple of Baal in Carthage, and they survived in manuscript form from the 10th century A.D. referring to the voyages of this man. Hanno was said by the ancient Greeks to have circumnavigated the Atlantic (referred to as “the northern ocean”) sometime around 480 B.C. But their accounts also tell us Hanno was a king of southern Spain, with his home port being Phoenician Cadiz. The New England inscription was written in the style of southern Iberian Punic, and the Phoenicians were the founders of the city of Cadiz. It is interesting to note, the Phoenicians’ documented travels from Iberia to Africa and then to India would have been twice as long as an Atlantic crossing.

But did the inhabitants of Bronze Age Iberia actually possess the capability to travel from the Old World to the New World, and what do their contemporaries say of them?

Around 1110 B.C., it is accepted by all historians, the Phoenicians were active throughout the Iberian region, settling the southern areas of Spain and mingling with an older, established civilization called the Tartessians. Not much is known about the Tartessians other than that they were an adventurous maritime people. They are mentioned at least 28 times in the Old Testament. Apparently their culture was centered in what today would be southwest Andalusia.3

As a sea and trading power the Phoenicians (known to the Greeks as the Phoenekoi—“wearers of the blood-red [purple] cloth”) made alliances easily. They were well known as the builders of some of the largest seagoing vessels of the period and the most active explorers of the Bronze Age. We hear of their sailing prowess in several of the Biblical Psalms. By 700 B.C. the Phoenicians had become the leading suppliers of raw materials to the Assyrian empire and were agents of both the Egyptians and the Assyrians. They were relied upon to provide gold, tin, copper and other precious goods to these great powers.

However, complete disaster befell the Carthaginian/Phoenician empire. The Punic Wars pitted the Carthaginians against the Greeks and Romans. These wars were waged during the three centuries before Christ. The first Punic War took place between 264 and 241 B.C. and ended in victory for the Romans, who annexed Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia from the vanquished.

The Carthaginians, however, under Hamilcar Barca, went on to conquer most of Spain (236-228). And Barca’s work was continued by his son-in-law Hasdrupal and Barca’s famous son Hannibal. By doing so, as historian W. David Crockett points out, the Carthaginians gained control of the Tartessian mines and were able to hire Keltic recruits for their army. Carthage lost Spain in the Second Punic War (218 to 210 B.C.), and the entire Carthaginian culture seems to have been destroyed in the Third Punic War (149 to 146 B.C.) with the destruction of Carthage itself in 146 B.C.

The Romans then took power over the Phoenicians, outlawing their religious rituals, including human sacrifice. After the fall of Carthage, the Mediterranean was completely closed to Phoenician traders, and historian Robert Ellis Cahill tells us they sailed away from North Africa in great numbers, never to be seen again.

Were they in search of economic, political and religious freedom? Could they possibly have sailed to the Americas to avoid persecution and tyranny?

Aristotle, in his Marvels of the World, written in 335 B.C., revealed that “outside the Pillars of Hercules [Straits of Gibraltar], the Carthaginians have found an island having woods of all kinds with remarkable fruits and navigable rivers.” This may have been a reference to the Americas. (Ancient mariners called any newly discovered piece of land an island, as they had no way of knowing, without attempting to sail around it, whether it was an island, a peninsula, or a continent.)

Well before this time, bands of Kelts, long known as great warriors, explorers and craftsmen, had invaded the Iberian peninsula, from central Europe. Keltic advances into southern Iberia (a Phoenician sphere of influence) were relentless, and the Phoenicians of Iberia finally succumbed to their invasions sometime around 500 B.C. The Phoenicians were eventually absorbed by the settlers—the regional written language changing to Keltic around then. But as with many conquerors, the cultural traits of the victor mingled with those of the conquered. The Kelts learned to speak the Phoenician language, probably for ease of trade, and adopted many of the Phoenicians’ maritime and commercial traits as well. Huge numbers of Keltic mercenaries marched with Hannibal across the Alps to ravage the Roman armies for almost a decade during the Second Punic War.

But the Kelts were also known as great seamen by their peers. Julius Caesar gives us one of the few reliable historical accounts of a Keltic navy in his De Bello Gallico, Book III, which deals exclusively with his impressions of a naval battle fought off the shores of Brittany (Armorica) in A.D. 55. His adversaries were the ferocious clans of mainland Europe who called to their aid their brethren, the Kelts of the British Isles. Caesar, a meticulous historian, tells us the Kelts were able to muster a force of 220 ships, all of which were bigger and more sturdily constructed, better sailed and steered than his own impressive navy’s ships.4 He described the Keltic ships as massive, high-prowed, flat bottomed and keeled.

Their sails were leathern—not the relatively flimsy cloth of Roman and Egyptian craft. Caesar adds that the rigging was of braided leather and that their helmsmen were able to tack, to sail against the wind. Further, the wooden planks of their vessels were bound in iron, not rope like less sophisticated vessels of the period, and their anchors were of iron, not the stone anchors his galleys were still using.

It was the Kelts who were the preeminent ironworkers of this age, fueling the Halstatt and La T�ne Iron Age cultures. In fact the Kelts are given credit for some of the greatest iron inventions in European history: the horseshoe; the hand saw; the plowshare; the rotary flour mill; a wheeled harvester and chisels, files and other hand tools, the design of which has changed little since their Keltic origins.5

All in all, Caesar was quite impressed with the sturdy and graceful nature of the enemy ships and in fact surprised by Keltic seamanship and ship construction. And we can further surmise Keltic shipbuilding and sailing techniques weren’t devised overnight—they were the product of centuries of accumulated knowledge. It is enlightening to compare the Keltic navy’s massing of 220 ships which could each carry 200 warriors and were 120 or more feet long to the three puny, leaky ships (two of which were around 50 feet in length) and the 88 men Columbus could muster for his transatlantic voyage 1,400 years later. What hubris to believe these people lacked the ability to sail to the New World millennia before Columbus.

And knowing of the keen knowledge the Keltic intellectuals possessed of the lunar phases, their ability to predict eclipses, their familiarity with the precession of the constellations, and their vast storehouse of astronomical knowledge, gleaned from sites like Stonehenge, Fell quite confidently states that Keltic mariners would have been able to sail by the stars and the Sun across great distances, across the Atlantic, at the right time of year, to “the land beyond the sunset.”

As traders and explorers the Phoenicians and Kelts were continually looking for new markets. One Phoenician merchant of the Bronze Age has been quoted as saying, “A virgin market is ideal since it can be scoured hard for huge profits.”6 And they were always looking for new trading partners and new suppliers of exotic trade goods and raw materials. The copper fields of the upper Michigan region were certainly one untapped source of pure copper and other metals that could have been mined and shipped back to metals-hungry Europe and sold for a great profit. And the archeological evidence of the region supports this thesis.

According to author Louis A. Brennan, in his thought-provoking book No Stone Unturned, “float copper” (pure surface copper that need not be smelted) was abundant in the Michigan region and had been mined since 4,000 B.C. by an ambiguous culture known as the Lamokans—one he says was not related to the modern Athabaskan Indian inhabitants of the region. This culture, he speculates, may have come from Europe via an Atlantic land bridge, but there is little evidence to support that theory. But the evidence does support two points: Ancient cultures were mining the float copper found in the Michigan region long before the Bronze Age and there was a strong Caucasoid presence in the area.7

We also find throughout the region scores of vowelless ogamic inscriptions in the Punic and Keltic dialects associated with the copper mines, proving these two groups were there at least as early as the first five to eight centuries B.C. And European travelers may very well account for two cultural mysteries of the area. One is the blond-haired, blue-eyed Mandan Indians, whose origins have puzzled anthropologists for decades. They were most likely the descendants of ancient European metals miners. According to author Gene Ballinger, they spoke a form of ancient Gaelic to such a degree that English explorers of the 15th and 16th century who were familiar with the Gaelic languages of Ireland and Scotland were able to converse with them.

The other is the presence of an enigmatic item found in the medicine pouch of Nez Perc Chief Joseph upon his capture in 1877. In this hide bag was found a cuneiform tablet whose inscription dates from 2042 B.C. The tablet was said by the chief to have been an inheritance from his white ancestors—bringers of great knowledge to his people eons ago.

Another important puzzle piece to this ancient mystery of trade between Phoenicians, Iberian Kelts and Bronze Age Europeans has been brought to light by scuba divers working at a depth of 120 feet in Castine Bay, Maine. Two large ceramic jars were recently hauled to the surface. They have turned out to be ancient olive jars from the Iberian peninsula. The amphorae display clear chafing patterns like those rope lashings would make during a long ocean voyage. More Iberian amphorae have been found in the waters off Newburyport and Boston, Massachusetts.8

Further, Fell and others have found scores of ancient coins throughout the New England area. He said, “After the 4th century B.C. our visitors began to leave behind infallible date markers: those enduring metal discs called coins.” The coins were inscribed with letters indicating they were issued to be used as pay for mercenary Greek and Iberian soldiers in the Carthaginian army.9

Ballinger notes that Carthaginian coins have been found in 11 states in 50 separate sites. Some of these coins are today worth thousands of dollars each, making it unlikely they were “dropped” by collectors.

The Phoenicians and the Kelts lived in Iberia together for generations—perhaps as long as 500 years side by side. They were ancient enemies of the Romans, great warriors, tradesmen and seamen. It would seem logical that they would venture together across the Atlantic for economic opportunities and to find freedom from Roman oppression.

Once the Kelts got to the shores of America, they could not have built the sophisticated megalithic complexes found in New England overnight (assuming these were constructed by the Kelts and not some unknown, earlier people). It would have taken them decades to found settlements, repair and build ships and set up the social structures necessary for the undertaking of the building projects we find in the New England area. Newcomers just don’t start building astronomically aligned chambers and setting up stone circles. They first must build houses, grow crops, ward off any hostile natives and establish all the other basics of stable civilization. This doesn’t mean a priestly class wasn’t setting up site stones and smaller monoliths, marking true north and other basic foundations for a future site.

Judging from the number of accurately functioning calendar sites in New England, it must have been a priority of an established settlement to construct one for themselves. But why was it so important?

It would appear the Kelts used the calendar sites in New England to regulate their year, to set planting and harvesting schedules and feel as though they had some loose control over the cycles of nature. We are drawn to this conclusion because the calendar sites clearly break the year into eight equal divisions related to the Sun, with the solstices and equinoxes as the four basic dividers. (The Kelts used both a lunar and a solar calendar. Many other cultures broke their year into 13 months [“moonths,” if you will] based upon the lunar cycle. It is said a solar cycle is more accurate, eliminating the need for leap years and the quarter day we pick up each year from our present calendar.)

The monoliths, solar chambers and accompanying ogamic inscriptions we find in New England always align to sunrise and sunset positions of the most important of Keltic ritual days.

Beltane (“the Fires of Bel”) was the first day in the Keltic calendar (our May 1) and was the holiday dedicated to the great god Bel. It was the Kelts’ most important yearly celebration. Beltane is the modern Irish name for the month of May. We celebrate this holiday as May Day, when children dance around a May pole, stomping the ground. It is a day for dancing and games and sports. Historically, May has been viewed as the month in which winter was finally over and the fruits of spring begin to ripen. At Mystery Hill, and other sites, the largest monolith was the one marking the sunrise of May first, and this day may have been the cue to drive grazing animals to their summer pastures.

Neolithic people probably danced around stone phalli like those still to be found throughout New England, their May Day festivals taking on a decided fertility aspect. Many believe our own May pole is a more palatable version of the ancient stone phalli that were almost completely eliminated in Christian Europe. Such stones remain standing at many New England sites, giving us an insight into the religion of the ancient Europeans. (In India today many Hindus still worship the lingam and its feminine counterpart the yoni.)

The next great holidays of the Kelts were Litha (the celebration of the summer solstice), Lammastide (the August first celebration when the first grains of fall are made into loaves of bread) and the fall equinox. At the megalithic complex at Mystery Hill, and others, all these Keltic holidays were marked by sunrises or sunsets over stone monoliths or the entry of the Sun into the small openings in the ceilings of slab-roofed chambers.

After the fall equinox, the next yearly division of eight would occur on November 1. This is when the Kelts celebrated Samhain—the predecessor of our Christian Halloween (October 31). On Samhain, the Kelts believed, the spirits of the dead could walk in the real world and make themselves known to the living. It is symbolically the start of winter and the end of mild weather and was an important druidic holiday marked by bonfires (fires of bone) as flames were thought to welcome friendly spirits and ward off bad ones. Fire pits are a common find near the megalithic structures that align with the sunrise and sunset on this holiday.

On December 21, the Kelts celebrated the winter solstice. This day marked the beginning of lengthening days and the slow march to spring. This holiday too has its sunrise and sunset monoliths as well as solar-aligned underground chambers at our New England megalithic sites, just as one would expect.

Succeeding the winter solstice, we would find a Keltic holiday on or near February 1. This holiday was known as Imbolc and indicated the start of the lambing season. “Imbolc” may mean “sheep’s milk.” And just as we could expect, there is a great monolith at Mystery Hill that aligns to the sunset on this date. An underground solar chamber is also bathed in sunlight on this date every year. Many suspect the American festival of Groundhog Day (Candlemas Day) is a modern-day parallel to Imbolc: Each February 2nd we all look for the shadow cast by the rising Sun upon a standing object (Punxsutawney Phil) to determine the continuation or abeyance of winter.

Further tying the holiday to the Kelts, an old Scottish saw proclaims: “If Candlemas is fair and clear/There’ll be two winters in the year.”

And finally we come full circle on the Keltic year with the celebration of the spring equinox, obviously a holiday with ties to rebirth and regeneration. The Kelts celebrated this day as the triumph of the Sun over the cold grip of winter’s death and dedicated the holiday to the goddess of the dawn, Eostre, the derivation of our Christian word Easter, which we have adopted as a joyous celebration of the rebirth and resurrection of Jesus Christ, the first Sunday following the first full Moon or after the vernal equinox.

Taken together, these holidays, which many of us still celebrate in one form or another today, break the year into a perfect division of eight parts—just as scholars predicted. In short, it is obvious the calendar sites of New England were used to regulate the year, cue planting, harvesting and animal husbandry cycles and could even predict eclipses of the Moon. Holidays and great celebrations would also begin and end according to the dictates of the stone chambers and monoliths, the Sun’s position telling the Keltic priestly class (druids and druidesses) all they needed to know to stun and amaze the populace with their accuracy if they so desired.

The druids must have learned their craft from an existing group of wise men who had carried on the astronomical knowledge from the ancients who had built Stonehenge, and some believe the Keltic druids were no more than students of that ancient, unknown religious/intellectual caste—perhaps the Red Paint people or the Battle Ax people of ancient Europe, and possibly related to the Lamokans.

The druids were the intellectual class of the Kelts during their entire cultural history—from the time of their migrations from the headwaters of the Danube until their entry into the British isles. This author will say, much to the consternation of some readers, that the druids did not have a hand in the building of Stonehenge. That timetable is about two thousand years off.10

No matter, the druids were intelligent philosophers, setting up institutes of higher learning and using the existing megalithic “observatories” to glean vast knowledge about the Moon, stars and Sun. Almost no decisions could be made, sacrifices offered or battles fought, without the presence of a druid priest or druidess.

The leaders of the druidic cult were divided into three basic categories: bards (the sect responsible for preserving literature and music); the vates (those responsible for carrying out sacrifices to the gods); and the druids proper (those responsible for studying natural science, philosophy and astronomy).

The vates, it was said, would augur from the death throes, entrails and spurting blood of a sacrificial victim. It may have been the vates especially who were wiped out by the Romans during their occupation of the British Isles, as the Romans claimed they were disgusted by the human sacrifices practiced by this sect. (This from a people that made mass execution, gladiatorial combat to the death and the feeding of unarmed people to wild beasts a spectator sport.) More likely the Romans (as was their policy of conquest) were attempting to wipe out the intellectual and religious castes of the Keltic peoples and providing the gullible with a good public relations reason to do so.

When the Kelts came to the New World, they were surely accompanied by their learned men—druid astronomer priests. And there is evidence to support this theory.

In September 1941, two boys playing on Great Chebeaugue Island in Casco Bay, Massachusetts began scraping moss from a large boulder facing the sea. To their surprise they discovered a life-size Caucasoid face (closely resembling a druid) carved with great skill. Fishermen who had lived on the island in the 18th century had reported seeing a carved face in the rocks, which they said had been discovered by the first island settlers. No one, however, could ever relocate the stone face until the boys stripped off the layers of moss. Jim Whittall concluded the face was carved by Keltic explorers sometime before A.D. 1000. The artistic style of the carving is obviously similar to that of the Kelts.

Another druid head just like that found at Casco Bay, adorned with oak leaves and acorns, was found in the bedrock at Searsmount, Maine and is presently on display at the Sturbridge Village Museum in Massachusetts. The connection to the oak is significant as the pagan Keltic druids considered the oak to be sacred (an idea which comes from the Indo-Europeans) and used the acorns and the leaves in their religious ceremonies. Some linguists claim the root of the word “druid” means “oak knowledge.”

But if in fact the Kelts were inhabiting what was later to become the homeland of the Algonquian Indians, there must be some cultural memory of this great migration and habitation. And there is.

One reliable Norse account of the voyage of Thorfin Karlsefni in A.D. 1123 claims the Viking explorers came across blond-haired, blue-eyed inhabitants of New England who spoke a form of Gaelic. One account tells that these people lived in underground chambers, like those we find today in New England. Whether these Gaelic speakers were Culdee (i.e., Keltic Christian) monks or pagan descendants of the ancient Keltic inhabitants of the New World is moot.11

And, the Algonquian Indians of the American Northeast clearly display characteristics of the southern European and Mediterranean racial stocks. They, unlike the obviously Mongoloid Athabaskans and Eskimos, have neither the epicanthic “oriental” eye fold, the yellow-hued skin, the “Mongoloid blue spot” pigmentation of the lower back of some Asians that disappears after puberty, the round-headedness, the short nose nor the small stature typically associated with the Mongoloid racial type. Algonquians typically display the aquiline “Roman” nose, obviously different from the Mongoloid nose. When the Algonquian intermarries with a Caucasian, their offspring are said to be more Caucasoid in appearance than if a Caucasian mixes with any other race on Earth. Why? Possibly because the Algonquian racial type is already part European.

There is also an ancient Wampanoag story of a great battle fought between white invaders and their tribe eons ago. The invaders came upstream in a large flat-bottomed ship with a “house” on the back. This may have been a reference to a Phoenician or Keltic vessel, as these peoples often added towers to the backs of their vessels for defensive purposes.12

But even more than these oral remembrances, the Algonquian language of the New England region convinces us of Old World Keltic contact. The Algonquian word “Amoskeag” means “one who takes small fish.” The Keltic “Ammosiasgag” means “small fish stream.” The Indian “Merrimack” River has been interpreted in Algonquian as “deep fishing.” But the Keltic “Morriomack” means “great depth.” The “Piscataqua” River is said to mean “white stone,” and it bears a striking resemblance to the Keltic “Pioscatacua” meaning “pieces of snow white stone.” The Indian “Pontanipo” Pond means “cold water” pond. The Keltic word for “numbing cold pool”?—“Punntainepol.”

These are just a mere few of the hundreds of similar Keltic and Algonquian place names that seem to be so close in pronunciation as to go beyond coincidence.13 Even the Vikings noticed the many similar words they found when conversing with the Algonquians.

It is more likely the Algonquian language is still strongly reminiscent of that of the ancient Keltic inhabitants who once roamed the forests of New England, set up the mysterious and sophisticated megaliths still being uncovered there and proudly carved their names in the rock faces boldly proclaiming their amazing accomplishments. And judging from thousands of recent finds of ogamic inscriptions from the Cimarron River basin in Oklahoma, to the Rio Grande in the south, to the mountains of Montana, to the river basins of Colorado, to the Pacific coast of South America, the New World Kelts were far from confined to New England. It appears likely they explored nearly every part of the Western Hemisphere thousands of years before the birth of Christ and up until as recently as A.D. 700.

The origin of the New England megalithic sites is most definitely Euro-American and not Amerindian. What a shame our children may never be taught the truth about these incredibly sophisticated early Europeans and European-Americans whose sites are, to this day, gathering places for astonished citizens who come to witness the rising or setting of the summer Sun over huge megalithic boulders set in place with great effort by these magnificent architects thousands of years ago.

Puzzlingly, however, carbon dating and archeo-astronomical data at the Mystery Hill site reveals a probable start date for the construction there as long ago as 2000 to 2500 B.C. This coincides more closely to the culture that built the great megalithic sites found at Stonehenge and Avebury in England and the immense Ring of Brodgar in Scotland (3000 B.C.). Like these cultures, no metal tools were used to carve the great stones of the earliest New England megalithic sites.14

Why wouldn’t the Kelts have used their sophisticated bronze, and later iron, tools to aid in the construction? Is it possible the Kelts merely finished or added to these American sites begun by an even older culture? The implications are enormous and deserve investigation.

Speculation has begun, even among the Establishment, that a Caucasoid race may have inhabited the Americas in a far distant era, possibly wiped out by hostile natives.

More likely, this race intermarried with the Amerindians of the area after exchanging sophisticated tool-making, agricultural, mining and pottery-making techniques. Were these the white “ancient ones” that appear so central in so much ancient Indian lore? Were they the founders or the impetus for the Anasazi and Hopewellian cultures? Only time, and further research, will tell.

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Paul Tudor Angel is a graphic designer and artist in the Washington, D.C. area. He is an avid student of history, archeology, anthropology and ancient cultures. This article was originally published in The Barnes Review, November 1997 and is reprinted here with the kind permission of the author.


1. Gene Ballinger, The Courier. (Hatch, New Mexico, (Rio Valley Publishing Co: hatch, New Mexico, 1995.), p. 1.

2. Barry Fell, America, B.C.—Ancient Settlers in the New World. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989), p. 45.

3. W. David Crockett, Archaeological Anomalies. (Decorah, Iowa: Anundsen Publishing Co., 1994), p. 43.

4. Barry Fell, America, B.C.—Ancient Settlers in the New World. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989), p. 115.

5. Merle Severy, The Celts—Europe’s Founders. (Washington, D.C: The National Geographic Society, 1977), p. 582.

6. Richard J. Harrison, Spain at the Dawn of History—Iberians, Phoenicians and Greeks. (Random House, New York, 1987), p. 73.

7. Louis A. Brennan, No Stone Unturned. (New York, New York: Random House, 1959), p. 89.

8. Robert Ellis Cahill, New England’s Ancient Mysteries. (Salem, Massachusetts, Old Saltbox Publishing House, Inc., 1993), p. 15.

9. Ibid., p. 9

10. Aubrey Burl, Prehistoric Avebury. (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1979), p. 49.

11. Robert Ellis Cahill, Viking and Indian Wars. (Salem, Massachusetts, Old Saltbox Publishing House, Inc., 1987). p8.

12. W. David Crockett, Archaeological Anomalies. (Decorah, Iowa: Anundsen Publishing Co., 1994), p. 37.

13. Barry Fell, America, B.C.—Ancient Settlers in the New World. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989), p. 279.

14. Dr. David Stewart-Smith, Ancient and Modern Quarry Techniques. (Nashua, New Hampshire: Gamesmasters Publishing Association, 1989), p. 3.


A Concise History of Ireland, Maive and Conor Cruise O’Brien, Beekman House, New York 1972.

America, B.C.—Ancient Settlers in the New World, Barry Fell, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1976.

America’s Stonehenge—An Interpretive Guide, Joanne Dondero Lambert, Sunrise Publications, Kingston, New Hampshire, 1996.

America’s Stone Relics—Vermont’s Link to Bronze Age Mariners, Warren Dexter and Donna Martin, Academy Books, Rutland, Vermont 1995.

Ancient and Modern Quarry Techniques, Dr. David Stewart-Smith, Gamesmasters Publishing Association, Nashua, New Hampshire, 1989.

Archaeological Anomalies, W. David Crockett, Anundsen Publishing Co., Decorah, Iowa, 1994.

Courier, The, Volume 19, No. 35, Gene Ballinger, Rio Valley Publishing Co., Hatch, New Mexico, 1995.

Celtic Connection, Michel-Gerald Boutet, Gloria Farley and Others, Stonehenge Viewpoint, Santa Barbara, California, 1990.

Celtic Secrets, Donald L. Cyr, Stonehenge Viewpoint, Santa Barbara, California, 1990.

Celts, The, Merle Severy, National Geographic, Volume 151, No. 5, May 1977.

Native American Myths and Mysteries, Vincent H. Gaddis, Borderland Sciences, Garberville, California, 1976.

New England’s Ancient Mysteries, Robert Ellis Cahill, Old Saltbox Publishing House, Inc., 1993, Salem, Massachusetts.

No Stone Unturned, Louis A. Brennan, Random House, New York, New York, 1959.

Prehistoric Avebury, Aubrey Burl, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1979.

Riddles in History, Cyrus H. Gordon, Crown Publishers, New York, 1974.

Ruins of Great Ireland In New England, William B. Goodwin and Malcolm D. Pearson, Meador Publishing Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1946.

Spain at the Dawn of History—Iberians, Phoenicians and Greeks, Richard J. Harrison, Random House, New York, 1987.

Viking and Indian Wars, Robert Ellis Cahill, Random House, New York, 1987.

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Kennewick Man
> or
> Dead "Indians" Don't Lie
> by Louis Beam
> The remains of one of the oldest North Americans ever found have been
> recovered in Washington state. The 9,300-year old skeleton is 90% complete
> and belongs to a Caucasian male about five foot ten inches tall. Described
> as one of the most complete skeletons ever unearthed in the Americas it was
> discovered near Kennewick, Washington in July of 1996 and dubbed "Kennewick
> Man." Now it is the subject of a court battle between anthropologists who
> desire to learn all they can about it, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
> which wants to cover it up, both literally and figuratively. The Corps
> wishes to turn this remarkable find over to American Indian tribes who want
> it reburied without further study based on the claim that the skeleton is an
> "Indian" and therefore should not be studied. The Indians had no explanation
> as to how one of their "ancestors" could be Caucasian. At stake at the
> center of this controversy is the rewriting of American pre-Columbian
> history--sooner rather than later.
> As if the discovery of an 9000 year old Caucasian in the United States would
> not of itself be sensational enough, the excitement over Kennewick man has
> led to a breaking down of "an iron curtain of silence" which had previously
> existed in the news media and among some archeologist and anthropologist
> over the finding of at least SIX OTHER Caucasoids of greater antiquity than
> any Asiatic Indian remains known in North America! Including the nearly
> ten-thousand-year-old mummy of a Caucasoid male found in Spirit Cave Nevada,
> and the skeletal remains of a nine year old Caucasoid female child found in
> Nevada of equal antiquity. From their graves, men, women, and children are
> speaking to us and their tale is that of an ancient culture stretching at
> the least from Arizona to Washington state. Their story, long unknown, now
> uncovered, rushes to greet us from the misty depths of the past. A
> sensational story of life and death in America B.C.
> Interestingly enough the Kennewick man had imbedded in his pelvic bone a two
> inch Clovis spear point of gray volcanic rock thrown by an enemy withClovis
> Point every intent to kill. Kennewick Man survived the attack but the spear
> point remained imbedded in his hip. Some have jokingly speculated that this
> was the first incidence of "Cowboys and Indians with the Indians winning."
> While this light-hearted statement adds sorely-needed humor to an otherwise
> tense situation now existing in federal court in Washington state, it should
> be pointed out that there is little proof that there was a single Indian of
> Siberian extract in the entire Northwest when Kennewick man lived, hunted
> and fought there. The present non-Caucasian Indians in that region are
> believed to have been there less than a thousand years, which makes them the
> invaders and Kennewick man and his people the "native Americans" of the
> Northwest, for whatever that is worth.
> In fact, such terms as "first", "original" and "native" really have no
> scientific or historical context in this time period, as so little is known
> (and if the federal government has its way little will be known) of this
> era. But such terms are convenient and useful for present day social
> engineers to provide preferential treatment to one class at the expense of
> another. As one lawyer involved in the court case stated, "A lot of their
> [Indian] pride and claims might not be true and that might impact them in
> financially adverse ways." This may explain in part the veil of secrecy that
> has surrounded the other ancient Caucasian people found, as well as attempts
> (some successful) to prevent further studies, among the most important of
> which, for proper classification of remains, would be DNA testing.
> In southern Idaho the skeletal remains of an 10,600-year old woman, found in
> a gravel quarry near the town of Buhl, was reburied in December, 1991 after
> the Shoshone-Bannocks -- believed by many scientists to have moved into the
> area less than a thousand years ago--claimed the remains were those of a
> dead ancestor. Tribal officials exercising authority newly granted them by
> the federal government refused permission for archaeologists to perform DNA
> tests and chemical analysis that would provide clues as to the racial origin
> of the skeleton, as well as other valuable information.
> Most Americans, taught the Bering Strait theory as an explanation for the
> peopling of America, are unaware that it is no longer seen as the sole
> explanation for the migrations to this continent. Archeological finds in
> South America, on the Eastern Seaboard of the US and elsewhere show
> conclusively that there were several distinct and separate migrations of
> different racial groups to the Americas. Furthermore, recent studies point
> to the hypothesis of a "North Atlantic Crescent" which existed between
> Europe and the Americas. With both water and ice serving as a "bridge"
> between the two continents.
> Archaeologists such as Thor Heyerdahl and many others have uncovered the
> oldest ruins in the Southern hemisphere of the American Continent. These
> ruins present politically correct archeologists with the problem of the most
> ancient civilizations being found at the Southern end of the American
> continent rather then at the Northern end, where one would expect to find
> them had the first settlers come across the Bering Strait. It is clear also
> from genetic DNA sequencing of haplotypes that there was more than one
> migratory event. Indeed, as one DNA study bluntly stated, "The notion of a
> homogeneous Amerind genetic pool does not conform with these and other
> results(1)".
> In ancient cities of South America, some of which may have been populated by
> over 50,000 people, were found the mummies of Caucasoid nobles buried in the
> bowels of ancient temples. As ruins continue to yield their secrets it now
> appears that many of the ancient pre-Columbian civilizations were sea-faring
> peoples with a long tradition of open-sea sailing. Rather than walking
> 10,000 miles from Mongolia to Chile, it now seems that the "first Americans"
> may have sailed first class. And where they came from will soon be firmly
> resolved by DNA testing. Peru, Chile, and Ecuador are all revealing long
> forgotten cities of ancient peoples classified as racially part of the
> Indo-European family of people. From Red headed mummies in pre-Inca graves
> in Peru to blond headed Toltek warrior priests in central Mexico, this is
> not the history of your father's generation.
> Pre-Columbian tombs are shattering the adage that "dead men tell no tales."
> And the exciting tales they relate will force the rewriting of pre-Columbian
> history. Shattered will be the myth of "Indians" as the first Americans,
> along with the credibility of those who view the advancement of mankind as a
> series of unconnected events and developments independent of outside
> influence from distant cultures; a deleterious school of thought that became
> popular in American universities in the 1960s along with "progressive
> socialism" and bell-bottom pants. Such thinking mutated in the once hallowed
> halls of academia into a form of politically correct archaeology that has
> greatly hindered the interpretation and understanding of American
> pre-history.
> Great steps in understanding the origins of American history are being made,
> and they are being done so over the academically dead bodies of fearful,
> politically correct social historians, who now find themselves haunted by
> the long dead bodies of stone age Americans. Some archaeologists have built
> empires based upon theories resembling in magnitude the Mayan city states
> just before their collapse. They see for themselves now an uncertain future
> in their chosen field where their long held notions are seen as relics as
> useful to modern man as Mayan bloodletting rituals. DNA research has placed
> them under siege and when the lab returns are in they will be out for job
> retraining.
> In future essays we will explore some of these ancient civilizations of the
> Americas and who may have founded them.
> Ancient Mayan temple stairsThe author, an amateur archaeologist, with an
> ancillary interest in anthropology, has for more than twenty years studied
> the ruins of Central America. He is seen here on a 1996 tour of the
> pre-Columbian ruins in Copan, Honduras. He stands on the steps of an ancient
> temple erected by a now vanished culture.




> 1. Callegari-Jacques, S.M.; Salzano, F.M.; Constans, J.; Maurieres, P.
> (Univ. Fed Rio Grande Sul; Inst. Matemat; Dept. Estatist; Campus Vale;
> BR-91540 Porto Alegre; RS, Brazil).
> GM Haplotype Distribution in Amerindians - Relationship with Geography and
> Language. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: 90(1993)4,p.427-444